USS Blakeley (DD-150) with damaged bow, 1942

USS Blakeley (DD-150) with damaged bow, 1942

USS Blakeley (DD-150) with damaged bow, 1942

Here we see the damaged bow of the Wickes class destroyer USS Blakeley (DD-150), inflicted on her on 25 May 1942 when she was hit by a torpedo fired by U-156 off Martinique. She was later given the bow from her sister ship USS Taylor (DD-94), which was being used as a training hulk by 1942.


USS Blakeley (DD-150)

The second USS Blakeley (DD–150) was a Wickes-class destroyer in the United States Navy, named for Captain Johnston Blakeley.

Built in 1918, she saw patrol duty along the East Coast of the United States during the interwar era. Decommissioned for several years, she returned to duty at the outset of World War II. She spent much of the war on convoy patrol duty in the Caribbean. On 25 May 1942, while on patrol, she was struck by a torpedo fired by German submarine U-156, which blew off her forward 60 feet (18 m). Fitted with temporary measures, she steamed to Philadelphia Naval Yard where she was fitted with the forward section of sister ship USS Taylor. She spent much of the rest of the war on convoy patrol duty before being sold for scrap in 1945.


Battle of Kolombangara

Japanese Sendai Class Light Cruiser - Heavily retouched photograph, taken when the ship was new, circa 1924-1925.

Yukikaze (Japanese destroyer, 1940), underway off Sasebo, Japan, in January 1940

USS Honolulu in 1942.

USS Saint Louis at Tulagi, Solomon Islands, sometime in 1943 before the Battle of Kolombangara.

Battle of Kolombangara, 13 July 1943: USS Saint Louis and HMNZS Leander firing during the action. This is probably the battle's initial engagement, in which the Japanese light cruiser Jintsu was sunk by gunfire and torpedo hits and Leander was damaged by a Japanese torpedo.

Two survivors of the sunken Japanese light cruiser Jintsu on board USS Nicholas after the battle. They are dressed in well-worn U.S. Navy enlisted working uniforms.

USS Honolulu in Tulagi Harbor, Solomon Islands, for temporary repair of damage received when she was torpedoed in the bow during the Battle of Kolombangara.

Collapsed bow of USS Honolulu, after she was torpedoed in the Battle of Kolombangara. Photographed while she was under repair at Tulagi on 20 July 1943.

Bow of USS Saint Louis (CL-49), showing torpedo damage received during the Battle of Kolombangara. Photographed while the ship was under repair at Tulagi on 20 July 1943.

USS Buchanan (DD-484) At Tulagi, Solomon Islands, with a damaged bow, 31 July 1943. She had collided with USS Woodworth (DD-460) while avoiding torpedoes during the Battle of Kolombangara on 13 July 1943.

USS Honolulu underway near Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, on 7 August 1943, en route to Pearl Harbor for battle damage repairs. She has been fitted with a short false bow as a temporary replacement for that lost in the Battle of Kolombangara, 13 July 1943.


World War II [ edit | edit source ]

At the outbreak of World War II, Hartenstein continued to serve on torpedo boats. In this position, he completed 65 patrols in the North Sea, Norwegian waters, the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel in the first one and a half years of the war. Ε] Hartenstein took command of torpedo boat Seeadler on 20 November 1938. Ζ] In October 1939 Hartenstein transferred and switched command of torpedo boat Jaguar with Kapitänleutnant Franz Kohlauf who took over command of Seeadler. Η] On 30 March 1941, command of Jaguar was given to Kapitänleutnant Friedrich-Karl Paul and Hartenstein transferred to the U-boat force, and on 4 September 1941 was given command of U-156, a Type IXC U-boat. For his service on torpedo boats, Hartenstein was awarded the German Cross in Gold on 2 February 1942. Γ] Karl Dönitz personally pinned the award on Harteinstein's leather jacket on 17 March 1942. Ε] U-156 was first assigned to the 4th U-boat Flotilla at Stettin as a training boat, then was transferred to the 2nd U-boat Flotilla at Lorient, France, on 31 December 1941. Γ]

First patrol [ edit | edit source ]

Hartenstein's first patrol (24 December 1941 – 10 January 1942) was an uneventful transfer patrol taking U-156 from Kiel to Lorient. Γ] U-156, together with U-87 and U-753, transited through the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal, passing Brunsbüttel where they joined up with a pathfinder and U-135. [Tr 5] The convoy received aerial protection from Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter aircraft and split up once they reached Cuxhaven. Passing south of the Shetland Islands, bypassing the Hebrides, U-156 slowly approached Rockall, where two weather buoys were released: "WFB 33" on 7 January 1942 at 51°04.3′N 11°04′W  /  51.0717°N 11.067°W  / 51.0717 -11.067  ( WFB 33 (weather buoy) ) , [Tr 6] and "WFB 32" on 8 January 1942 at 02:44 at 53°24′N 13°32′W  /  53.4°N 13.533°W  / 53.4 -13.533  ( WFB 32 (weather buoy) ) in the Porcupine Bank. U-156 received a radio message on the evening of 8 January ordering Hartenstein to proceed at high speed to Lorient, where it arrived on 10 January 1942. ⎖]

Second patrol [ edit | edit source ]

On his second patrol (19 January 1942 – 17 March 1942) Hartenstein commanded a wolfpack of U-boats (Gruppe Neuland—Group New Land) during the Attack on Aruba in February 1942, attacking an oil refinery. U-156 along with U-67 under the command of Günther Müller-Stöckheim and U-502 under the command of Jürgen von Rosenstiel departed from Lorient under the protection of a pathfinder in the early morning of 19 January 1942. Hartenstein's orders were to conduct a simultaneous surprise attack of the Gruppe Neuland against the shipping traffic off Aruba and Curaçao. Besides U-156, U-67 and U-502, Gruppe Neuland also included the submarines U-129 under the command of Nicolai Clausen and U-161 under the command of Albrecht Achilles. ⎗]

Pedernales, heavily damaged after being struck by a German torpedo

On 16 February, after observing the area for a few days, U-156 came around to the refineries. There in front of her target were two Lago Company flat-bottom steamers, SS Pedernales and Oranjestad, both British-owned oilers. At 01:31, U-156 surfaced in San Nicolaas Harbour some 1.5 km (0.81 nmi 0.93 mi) offshore and attacked the two British tankers at anchor. Hartenstein fired one torpedo from his bow tubes at Pedernales. The torpedo attack was successful and Pedernales was hit amidships. Loaded with crude oil, the steamer immediately burst into flames, killing eight of her 26 crewmen and wounding her captain Herbert McCall. Oranjestad then began to lift anchor and steam away but she was too late and was hit by a second torpedo fired from U-156. She too burst into flames and sunk an hour later in about 70 m (230 ft) of water. Fifteen of her 22 crewmen were killed. ⎘]

At 03:13, U-156 attacked the Texaco-owned tanker SS Arkansas which was berthed at Eagle Beach next to the Arend/Eagle Refinery. Just one of the torpedoes struck Arkansas and partially sank her but the damage was moderate and caused no casualties. Commander Hartenstein then steamed further around Aruba and directed his men to take to the deck guns and prepare for a naval bombardment of the large oil tank of the Lago Oil and Transport Company The crew of the 10.5 cm SK L/45 naval gun forgot to remove the water cap from the barrel, so when Hartenstein ordered them to fire, the gun blew up. Gunnery Officer Dietrich von dem Borne was wounded badly, one foot having been severed. His comrade and trigger man Heinrich Büssinger was badly wounded as well and died several hours after the attack. Hartenstein ordered the 3.7 cm flak gun to continue the attack, causing only superficial damage. ⎙]

Third patrol [ edit | edit source ]

The heavily damaged USS Blakeley

On Hartenstein's third patrol (22 April 1942 – 7 July 1942), U-156 sank 12 ships and damaged a further two, including the USS Blakeley on 25 May 1942. This achievement earned Hartenstein a reference on 6 June 1942 in the Wehrmachtbericht (armed forces report), an information bulletin issued by the headquarters of the Wehrmacht. To be singled out individually in this way was an honour (equivalent to "Mentioned in Despatches" in the United Kingdom military) and was entered in the Orders and Decorations' section of a soldier's Service Record Book. ⎚]

U-156 along with U-502 again departed from Lorient under the protection of a pathfinder on 22 April 1942 destined for the Caribbean Sea. Prior to the departure Dietrich von dem Borne, who had been severely wounded on the second patrol, was replaced by Oberleutnant zur See of the Reserve Gert Mannesmann. ⎛] Chief engineer Wilhelm Polchau reported to Hartenstein on 6 May that the diesel compressor had malfunctioned. [Tr 7] Hartenstein radioed U-66 under the command of Robert-Richard Zapp to assist. On 10 May U-156 and U-66 rendezvoused and exchanged 5 cubic metres (6.5 cu yd) of fuel oil for the necessary spare parts, and the fuel compressor was repaired. U-156 sighted the first steamer in the early afternoon on 12 May, the first of twelve ships—eleven merchantmen and one warship—attacked on this patrol, ten of which were sunk. ⎜]

U-156, positioned near Fort-de-France, was ordered to observe the traffic to and from Martinique. At roughly 11 nautical miles (20 km 13 mi) offshore, the hydrophones detected a ship. Hartenstein attacked from a submerged position firing two torpedoes. One torpedo struck the bow of the Blakeley after a 25-second run-time. Hartenstein observed that the bow was completely blown away, but its engines kept running. The waters around Martinique were extremely shallow and Hartenstein decided not to pursue the destroyer. ⎝] On 1 June 1942, Hartenstein was promoted to Korvettenkapitän (corvette captain). ⎞] The first watch officer, Paul Just, left U-156 after returning from the third patrol. Just was replaced by Oberleutnant zur See Leopold Schumacher as new first watch officer. Just later became commander of U-6, U-151 and U-546. ⎟]

Hartenstein and the entire crew of U-156 received a hero's welcome by the people of Plauen on 20 July 1942. The people lined the streets as the whole crew marched from the railway station to the City Hall for the official welcome reception. ⎠]

Fourth patrol and Laconia incident [ edit | edit source ]

On U-156's fourth patrol (20 August 1942 – 16 November 1942), Hartenstein sank and then organised the rescue of the survivors of RMS Laconia, resulting in the "Laconia incident" and "Laconia order". ⎡]

U-156 together with U-68 under the command of Karl-Friedrich Merten departed from Lorient on 20 August 1942 heading for the Bay of Biscay. Hartenstein received the order to operate against Convoy SL-119 on 25 August. After a two-day pursuit, U-156 found a straggler, the SS Clan Macwhirter, west of Casablanca. Hartenstein attacked from a submerged position to avoid detection under the bright moonlight. Clan Macwhirter was hit by two torpedoes and sank, killing nine members of the crew and two gunners 79 sailors survived the sinking. Two later sightings on 2 and 6 September did not lead to favourable attack positions. ⎢]

On 12 September 1942 U-156 was patrolling off the coast of West Africa midway between Liberia and Ascension Island roughly 600 nautical miles (1,100 km 690 mi) south of Cape Palmas. At 11:37 the aft port lookout sighted a smoke stack at 230 degrees. Hartenstein followed the target, which was zigzagging at 14 knots (26 km/h 16 mph), until the general direction of the large ocean liner became evident. U-156 was running at 17 knots (31 km/h 20 mph) into a favourable attack position, and Hartenstein ordered the attack at 21:07. He slowed speed at 22:00 and ordered surfaced deflection shots from torpedo tubes I and III. After three minutes and six seconds the first torpedo detonated, then the second. ⎡] He had hoped to capture the ship's senior officers, but to his surprise, Hartenstein saw over two thousand people struggling in the water. Hartenstein immediately began rescue operations. Laconia sank at 23:23. ⎣]

At 01:25 on 13 September 1942 Hartenstein radioed the Befehlshaber der U-Boote (BdU—commander of U-boats) requesting guidance and confirmation on how to proceed. The BdU responded at 03:45 ordering Wolf pack Eisbär, consisting of U-507 under the command of Harro Schacht, U-506 under the command of Erich Würdemann and U-459 under the command of Georg von Wilamowitz-Möllendorf, to assist Hartenstein immediately. ⎤] At 06:00 Hartenstein ordered that the following message be sent on the 25m wavelength: ⎥]

"If any ship will assist the ship-wrecked Laconia crew, I will not attack providing I am not being attacked by ship or air forces. I picked up 193 men. 4°53 South/11°26 West – German submarine" ⎥]

U-156 (foreground) and U-507 (background) on 15 September 1942

The message was repeated twice on the international 600m wavelength. ⎥] The BdU later changed the order slightly and U-506, U-507 and the Italian submarine Capellini were dispatched. In parallel U-156 was assisting and supplying the survivors in the numerous lifeboats that kept arriving or were picked up. U-506 arrived at 11:32 on 14 September 1942, followed by U-507 in the afternoon of 15 September. ⎦] Heading to a rendezvous with Vichy French ships under Red Cross banners, the U-boats were attacked by a U.S. Army B-24 Liberator bomber (343d Bomb Squadron Lieutenant James D. Harden) at 12:32 on 16 September 1942. ⎧] The attack ordered by Captain Robert C. Richardson III, which killed a number of people in the lifeboats and damaged U-156, forced Hartenstein to abandon the rescue operations. ⎨] A majority of survivors were later rescued by British merchant ships and two Vichy French warships, the cruiser Gloire and the sloop Annamite, out of Dakar, Africa. ⎩]

This event later became known as the "Laconia incident" and led BdU Admiral Karl Dönitz to issue the "Laconia order" to his U-boat commanders that stated in part "No attempt of any kind must be made at rescuing members of ships sunk . " At the end of the war, the Laconia Order was unsuccessfully used against Admiral Dönitz in his war crime trial. The prosecution failed when Fleet Admiral Nimitz testified that in the war with Japan the United States Navy had followed the same general policy as was set forth in the German admiral's directive. ⎪]

U-156 received a radio message on 17 September 1942 indicating that Werner Hartenstein had become the 63rd member of the U-boat service and the 125th of the Kriegsmarine to be awarded Germany's highest military honour, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. ⎫] Hartenstein issued a bottle of beer to each member of the crew and held a speech honouring the achievements of everyone on board, and telling them that he would wear the decoration in their name. ⎬]

On 19 September 1942, U-156 was roughly 800 nautical miles (1,500 km 920 mi) south of Freetown and the crew was still repairing minor damage, when the lookout spotted a ship at 04:30. The target was the British ship Quebec City, en route from Cape Town to Freetown. Hartenstein attacked from a submerged position and hit Quebec City with one torpedo fired from tube VI. Hartenstein surfaced and approached the lifeboats and asked the survivors for the ship's name. Quebec City did not sink easily and U-156 fired 58 rounds from the 37 mm (1.46 in) flak gun and seven further shots from the 10.5 cm gun before Hartenstein ordered a cease fire. After a direct hit in the ship's stern ammunition magazine and an explosion, Quebec City slowly sank. ⎭] According to William Clark, a member of Quebec City ' s crew, Hartenstein made sure that the survivors had enough water and provisions and that Captain William Thomas had the exact coordinates. This account of that attack and the impression that the humanitarian actions of Hartenstein made is documented in the book by David Cledlyn Jones, The Enemy We Killed, My Friend. ⎮] Jones himself disagrees, stating that Hartenstein was concerned about the survivors’ well-being but did not inquire about provisions, nor did he offer additional food or water. Hartenstein did express that it would have been his wish to tow them at least some distance to the African coast, but explained that he was not able to do so as he recently had been attacked while attempting to aid survivors. ⎯]

Fifth patrol and death [ edit | edit source ]

During his fifth patrol (16 January 1943 – 8 March 1943), on 8 March 1943, Hartenstein and the entire crew of U-156 were killed in action by depth charges from a US PBY Catalina aircraft (VP-53/P-1 Lieutenant E. Dryden), east of Barbados. The Catalina dropped four Mark 44 Torpex water-bombs at 13:15 from an altitude of 75 feet (23 m) to 100 feet (30 m) which straddled U-156. Two bombs were observed to hit the water 10 feet (3.0 m) to 15 feet (4.6 m) starboard and just aft of U-156, lifting it and breaking it in two, followed by an explosion. At least eleven survivors were seen swimming in the water. The Americans dropped two rubber rafts and rations, and five men were seen to reach one of the rafts. The USS Barney was dispatched from Trinidad to rescue the survivors. The search was abandoned on 12 March 1943. Korvettenkapitän Ernst Kals, chief of the 2nd U-boat Flotilla at Lorient, sent a letter to Hartenstein's parents on 23 April 1943 indicating that their son had been posted as missing in action as of 12 March 1943. [Note 1] US officials announced the destruction of the U-boat on 10 May 1943. ⎱]

Ten months after his death a service of remembrance was held in Plauen on 15 January 1944. The service was attended by his parents, his sisters and other members of the family, the mayor of Plauen, Eugen Wörner, senior officials and councilors. The local press reported that "His parents have accepted that their loving son will not return home but is resting in peace with his Lord." ⎲] Werner Hartenstein was portrayed by German actor Ken Duken in the 2011 TV mini-series The Sinking of the Laconia. ⎳]


USS Blakeley (DD-150) with damaged bow, 1942 - History

A Tin Can Sailors
Destroyer History

Named for Civil War veteran, Admiral Charles H. Davis, the DD-395 was the third to bear the admiral’s name. On 30 July 1938, more than 8,000 spectators gathered to see the launch of the DAVIS, the second 1,850-ton first line destroyer built by the Bath Iron Works. She was commissioned on 9 November 1938.

The DAVIS was one of the first ships to join the Neutrality Patrol in the cold, storm-swept North Atlantic after war broke out in Europe on 1 September 1939. On 13 November, stormy weather followed her when the DAVIS sailed from Boston for Galveston, Texas, with the JOUETT (DD-396), BENHAM (DD-397), ELLET (DD-398), and LANG (DD-399). Patrols and training exercises in the Gulf of Mexico were followed by duty in West Coast and Hawaiian waters from 11 March 1940 to 26 April 1941. She returned to the Caribbean for patrol and escort duty, operating mainly with the MEMPHIS (CL-13), OMAHA (CL-4), JOUETT, and WARRINGTON (DD-383).

Following the Pearl Harbor attack, the DAVIS sailed on patrol and convoy duty off Recife, Brazil, sailing at various times with the OMAHA, SOMERS (DD-381), JUNEAU (CL-52), EBERLE (DD-430), MARBLHEAD (CL-12), MILWAUKEE (CL-5), MEMPHIS, and CINCINNATI (CL-6). On 26 May 1942, the DAVIS was in San Juan, Puerto Rico, when she was ordered to sea to assist the BLAKELEY (DD-150), which had been torpedoed by an enemy submarine. She got underway so fast that nine of her crew were left behind. The next day, she escorted the damaged ship to safety.

On the afternoon of 19 July 1942, her crew sighted the sails of two life rafts and took aboard ten survivors of the British sailing ship GLACIER, sunk by gunfire from an unidentified submarine. Direct contact with a submarine came on 16 September off Trinidad. That morning, in company with the EBERLE, she sighted the sub, which immediately dove. Later, as the DAVIS’s 20-mm gunners fired on a small piece of wreckage, shells from the number two gun hit the spray shield, causing minor injuries to the commanding officer, communications officer, and four crew members. Finally, at 1305, the destroyer made contact with a submarine and five minutes later attacked with depth charges. An hour later, she and the EBERLE dropped more depth charges. Planes joined in the depth-charge attack, and at 1431, the DAVIS dropped a third array. Although both ships and planes reported a large air bubble breaking the surface, they saw no other evidence of damage. The DAVIS and EBERLE went on their way to rendezvous with the MERVINE (DD-489), BEATTY (DD-640), and QUICK (DD-490), but at 1809, spotted a submarine silhouetted by moonlight dead ahead. The two destroyers fired two 5-inch rounds, causing the submarine to dive between them. Abandoning the rendezvous, the DAVIS and EBERLE conducted a futile search for the mysterious sub and then went on to Trinidad, arriving on 17 September.

Continuing patrols for submarines and blockade runners took the DAVIS into 1943, and after a summer overhaul at the Charleston Navy Yard, she returned to Recife, Brazil, in August. Following an Atlantic crossing to Freetown, West Africa, in December, the destroyer was headed back to Recife on 7 January 1944, when she intercepted a life boat with thirty-one survivors from the German blockade runner BURGENLAND sunk earlier by the OMAHA and JOUETT. After taking the men aboard, she sank the boat with gunfire and delivered the prisoners to authorities at Recife on the 9th.

The DAVIS left the Caribbean for New York in April 1944 and sailed for England on 14 May as a convoy escort with the SOMERS and JOUETT. They arrived at Plymouth 25 May. On 5 June, she was underway from Milford Haven, Wales, to join a convoy en route to Baie de la Seine for the invasion of Normandy. The DAVIS arrived 7 June with the Reserve Fire Support Group, and five days later, while on patrol, at 0116, fired on an enemy torpedo boat. During her patrols, her gunners also fired on two enemy planes. Following a brief return to England, she was headed back to the French coast on 21 June with British war correspondents aboard, when she struck what was probably an acoustic mine. Although no one aboard was hurt, the ship was heavily damaged by the explosion close off her port quarter. After emergency repairs, the DAVIS left two days later for England. Powered by a single engine, she began a slow journey to Charleston, South Carolina, arriving 11 August for permanent repairs.


Prometheus (AR-3) Class: Photographs

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

Vestal and her sister Prometheus (Collier No. 2) were the first colliers built by the Navy. They were large and fast ships but were inefficient as colliers because their machinery and superstructure was located amidships. See the listing under Colliers for more photos of these ships as colliers.

Photo No. NH 43620
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

Shown soon after her conversion to a repair ship, possibly in the Norfolk area in 1917.
Externally the conversion included reducing the rig from four to two masts and extending the after end of the amidships island. The small deckhouse on this extension does not reach either side of the ship. The tug alongside may be Wando (Tug No. 17) or Chemung (No. 18).

Photo No. 8834
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-A-31

Probably shown at New York between 17 and 20 December 1918 a week before the Victory Fleet Naval Review there.
The deckhouse on the after end of her amidships island extends to both sides of the ship with six round openings on the port side and a row of closely-spaced rectangular openings on the starboard side with four more on the level below. Prometheus also had a deckhouse here but it did not extend to the ship's sides. The two exhaust stacks on the stern are for the ship's foundry. The battleship Iowa (No. 4) is in the distance astern.

Photo No. NH 43622
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

With the fleet in January 1920, probably at Guantanamo Bay.
The photo identifies her as Vestal , but that ship was in the Pacific at this time. She is still essentially in her original configuration with a short forecastle.

Photo No. NH 50271
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

Probably shown circa 1920-1921.
The forward half of the ship's well deck has been filled in by extending the forecastle back to the foremast and a rangefinder has been fitted between the forward pair of 5" guns. The rest of the ship including the amidships superstructure appears to be largely unchanged.

Photo No. NH 68323
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

Shown during the early 1920s.
The deckhouse on the after end of the amidships superstructure has been extended to the sides of the ship as in Vestal and has also been extended further forward. The row of large round openings on the level below it on the starboard side was unique to Prometheus , which already had it while at Brest, France, in 1918.

Photo No. 80-G-1025106
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

Shown circa the mid- or late 1920s with an Omaha (CL-4) class light cruiser in the background. Vestal supported cruisers of this class for many years.
The forward half of the ship's well deck has been filled in and a rangefinder fitted forward as in Prometheus . The rest of the ship appears to remain largely as it was in 1918.

Photo No. None
Source: Shipscribe

Moored in a warm climate circa the late 1920s or early 1930s.
The four rectangular openings at the after end of her amidships superstructure on the starboard side (a feature not in Prometheus ) are partly open and the row of rectangular openings in the deckhouse above them are shielded by awnings. The masts and smokestacks of an Omaha class light cruiser are barely visible behind her.


Photo No. None
Source: Shipscribe

With USS Memphis (CL-13) alongside to port circa the late 1930s.
The deckhouse on Vestal 's amidships superstructure has been extended forward almost to the smokestack and other smaller modifications have been made.

Photo No. None
Source: Shipscribe

Laid up at the Puget Sound Navy Yard on 3 June 1941 shortly before beginning reactivation.
The ship had been laid up since October 1924 and was in questionable condition in 1941, with some items including the smokestack removed. Her four 5"/50 guns were still on board.

Photo No. 19-N-24258
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

At the Puget Sound Navy Yard on 2 July 1942 after reconstruction and reactivation.
The ship was recommissioned on 15 May 1942. The reconstrution included filling in the well deck forward and enclosing the entire boat deck level above the former amidships superstructure.

Photo No. 19-N-30887
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

Providing battle damage repairs to USS South Dakota (BB-57) and two destroyers in November 1942, probably at Noumea, New Caledonia.
The inboard destroyer, with the distorted bow, is probably USS Mahan (DD-364), which was damaged in a collision with South Dakota at the close of the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands on 27 October 1942. South Dakota received damage in both that battle and in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal on 15 November 1942. The other destroyer may be USS Lamson (DD-367).

Photo No. 80-G-36088
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

At Tulagi in the Southwest Pacific about 20 July 1943 receiving USS Saint Louis (CL-49) alongside for initial repair of torpedo damage received in the Battle of Kolombangara on 13 July 1943.

Photo No. 80-G-258905
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

A close-up of Vestal from the above image. This view indicates that Vestal 's repairs following her battle damage at Pearl Harbor did not greatly change her configuration except for her armament.

Photo No. 80-G-258905 (detail)
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

Departing the Mare Island Navy Yard on 8 September 1944 after receiving alterations there to prepare her for duty at Ulithi.
The main alteration was the filling in of her well deck forward, as had been done over two years earlier in her sister. The disruptive pattern camouflage may be the variant of Measure 31 that used green paints.


USS San Francisco Leaves Shipyard

USS San Francisco (SSN 711) finally left the Puget Sound this morning for her new homeport of San Diego, 3 1/2 years after arriving there for repairs following her early 2005 collision. BZ to all those involved in bringing her back to the active fleet!

For those who are interested, here's a compilation of all the posts I wrote about the SFO grounding in the year after it happened that I collected over at Ultraquiet No More.

22 Comments:

This comment has been removed by the author.

I was TAD there in Engineering for the "get our shit together for steam plant testing, requals, and PORSE." They'd been in the yard so long, many of them had never seen a boat steam, and none had ever been submerged on SF, but they pulled the whole thing off relatively smoothly. Not totally without pain, but then, who could do that? It's the shipyard, after all.

Awesome bunch of guys, great Eng and CO. I'd be permanent crew with them anytime.

3 1/2 years? How long did it take to build a 688?

Seems like several boats are change of home porting to SD. My hubs boat is after this deployment.

Just in time to make room for the Hartford to pull in & completely reweld the sail back on.

BZ San Fran on getting out of the yard! I had a friend onboard for the collision who ended up getting out due to PTSD afterwards.

It wasn't easy for anyone involved, but it's great to see her back out to sea, where she belongs.

Thanks for sharing your blog.

The main reason for the delay was that they had to wait for a new bow section, which came from the donor boat USS Honolulu. For a time it was not certain the idea would work. There were concerns that the hull may have been deformed additionally it had never been done before. Ultimately a little ingenuity and a lot of money (don't know the number) made it work.

The SFO did things well in the yard. Imagine, for two years you do nothing but think about the future. Nothing. They did a great job of staying ready and out of trouble--no mean feat. They sent guys out in droves to ride other ships.

Sure hope the saved the sail of the Honolulu for the Harford. :-)

Just joking here, but actually I think it is great that they can do that. I think the Missouri battleship had to have its bow replaced just after WWII when it ran aground. They used the bow from an unfinished battleship still on the building ways, but admittedly, transplanting a submarine bow is much more complicated.

Yes, it was Wisconsin. I had it wrong. http://www.navsource.org/archives/01/64d.htm

On 6 May 1956 the battleship collided with the destroyer Eaton (DD-510) in a heavy fog Wisconsin (BB-64) put into Norfolk with extensive damage to her bow and, one week later, entered drydock at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. A novel expedient speeded her repairs and enabled the ship to carry out her scheduled midshipman training cruise that summer. A 120-ton, 68-foot long section of the bow of the uncompleted battle ship Kentucky (BB-66) was transported by barge, in one section, from New Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Corp., Newport News, Va., across Hampton Roads to the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. Working round-the clock, Wisconsin's ship's force and shipyard personnel completed the operation which grafted the new bow on the old battleship in a mere 16 days. On 28 June 1956, the ship was ready for sea.

Considerably quicker than the job on the SF

The cost of transplanting the bow was $134 million.

Here is the article in the local paper.

A situation vaguely similar to WISCONSIN happened to ARTHUR W. RADFORD when she hit the Saudi tanker in 1999. The bow of another SPRUANCE class (I believe it was COMTE DE GRASSE) was grafted on her and she served another 4 years. Of course, she had the special Advanced Enclosed Mast, which looked like a big middle finger to the world.

BRINKLEY BASS also got a new bow after she hit WADDELL in 1966. Was attached just the tiniest bit off center - obvious bow on. After the hit, she became known on the waterfront as the CRINKLY BASS.

Along with the 688 shuffle, these boats seem to each have their own individual quirks. Be interesting to hear if the Honofrisco has developed the SSN version of a facial tick.

Maybe its just me but I don't think I would want to sail on her. Call it a sailors superstition but sailing on SF would give me the willies. Then again, what do I know. I sailed on SSN 666 and felt safe as could be.

If I'm reading the story right, it sounds like they just swapped out everything forward of the pressure hull. MBTs, sonar access trunk, sonar sphere, etc.

So it doesn't seem like anything close to the entire forward compartment being replaced, which was my original expectation based on early reports of the torpedo tubes/pressure hull being fubar.

If it was more of a nose job than anything else, one fairing is as good as the next.

Am sort of left wondering how this took so long if my interpretation of the article is right and 'all' they did was swap out the MBTs, etc.

No small task. but 3.5 years worth? Would guess that a lot of that time was by way of doing a complete inspection of every system and collecting 'crash test' data that the Navy's never had before.

Seen pictures of the USS Blakely DD-150 with her bow blown off by a German torpedo in 1942. The bow of the stricken USS Taylor DD-95 was grafted onto the Blakeley. Over the years I think a lot of this stuff went on.

Re: Bad Luck and superstition. USS Squalus after salvage and repair was renamed Sailfish. One of the crew rechristened her "Squailfish. The skipper, Morton Mumma threatened to court martial any sailor referring to the boat as Squailfish. Ironically, Mumma "broke down" during depth charge attack and had to be relieved by the XO. She did have her difficulties. A chief Engineman on the USS Stickleback SS-415 which was rammed and sunk off Pearl Harbor in 1958 by USS silverstein was a former wartime Sailfish sailor. BTW, no one lost on Stickleback collision and sinking.

The actual bow replacement (all forward of the pressure hull) didn't actually take that long. Drydocked Dec 2006 and undocked October 2008, so just shy of 2 years.

The 3 1/2 years is from the time the SF arrived in Bremerton (Sept. 2005). She sat pierside for a year before even entering the shipyard!

I was on the Cable when this happened, and my division (R1) pretty involved in most of the work before the ship (boat?) left Guam. It was a sad day when they pulled in. I'm sure there's very few crewmembers from then still on the boat right now, but I'm glad that the SanFran is back.

Very helpful piece of writing, much thanks for the article.

It can't work as a matter of fact, that is what I consider.

Name: Bubblehead Location: Meridian, Idaho, United States

I'm Joel Kennedy -- a married, 50-something year old retired submarine officer and esophageal cancer survivor with three kids who has finally made the transition to civilian life. Politically, I'm a Radical Moderate. (If you don't like something on this blog, please E-mail me. Don't call me at home.)


World War II Database

Photo(s) dated 25 May 1928

  • Yun Bong-gil was convicted of murder for the death of Yoshinori Shirakawa and Kawabata Sadaji in Shanghai, China. ww2dbase [Yun Bong-gil | Shanghai | CPC]
  • Concentration camps in Emsland, Lower Saxony, Germany were placed under the jurisdiction of the German justice department the SA provided guards for the camps. ww2dbase [Discovery of Concentration Camps and the Holocaust | CPC]
  • Captain Toru Izawa was named the commanding officer of Tenryu. ww2dbase [Tenryu | CPC]
  • "The Tentative Landing Operations Manual, 1935" was approved by US Navy's Chief of Naval Operations, containing theories on amphibious landings. ww2dbase [CPC]
  • Deutsche Werke Kiel AG in Germany began planning the construction of a third slip. ww2dbase [Deutsche Werke Kiel | Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein | AG]
  • Captain Tadashige Daigo was named the commanding officer of Naka. ww2dbase [Naka | CPC]

25 May 1935 Interactive Map

  • Fleet escort ship F6 was commissioned into service. ww2dbase [F6 | CPC]
  • Fleet escort ship F7 was launched at the Blohm und Voss yard in Hamburg, Germany. ww2dbase [Blohm und Voss | F7 | Hamburg | CPC]

25 May 1936 Interactive Map

  • British Royal Air Force took ownership over prototype Hurricane fighter K5083 at Martelesham Heath airfield in Suffolk, England, United Kingdom. ww2dbase [Hurricane | Martelesham Heath, England | CPC]

25 May 1937 Interactive Map

  • 26 Japanese bombers attacked Chongqing, China in the evening six Chinese fighters intercepted them over the junction of Jialing River and Yangtze River and claimed two bombers shot down. ww2dbase [Bombing of Shanghai, Chongqing, and other Cities | Chongqing | CPC]
  • USS Skipjack transited the Panama Canal. ww2dbase [Panama Canal | Skipjack | CPC]

25 May 1939 Interactive Map

  • British trade union executives accepted Aneurin Bevan's proposal for the Labour Supply Board and Production Council. ww2dbase [CPC]
  • The first transport of prisoners arrived at the Mauthausen-Gusen Concentration Camp in occupied Austria region of southern Germany. ww2dbase [Discovery of Concentration Camps and the Holocaust | CPC]
  • Illustrious was commissioned into service. ww2dbase [Illustrious | CPC]
  • Crown Prince Yi Un was made the commanding officer of the Japanese 4th Division. ww2dbase [Yi Un | CPC]
  • Captain Richard F. J. Onslow was named the commanding officer of HMS Hermes, relieving Captain F. E. P. Hutton. ww2dbase [Hermes | CPC]
  • General Maxime Weygand confirmed General Georges Blanchard as the new commander of the French First Army. ww2dbase [AC]
  • Béarn made rendezvous with light cruisers Jeanne d'Arc and Émile Bertin in the Atlantic Ocean and transferred French central bank gold bullions to the light cruisers, which would carry them to Canada. ww2dbase [Béarn | CPC]
  • Adolf Hitler continued to hold off his tanks from engaging on an offensive even though those armored division were merely 10 miles from Dunkerque, France. At Calais, France, Heinz Guderian obediently, albeit frustratingly, ordered his tanks to halt per Hitler's orders, but the field commanders continued to push back the British and French troops. In the evening, British Expeditionary Force commanding general Lord Gort began to fall back to Dunkerque. On the same day, the French Army relieved 15 generals of their commands. ww2dbase [Invasion of France and the Low Countries | Dunkerque, Nord-Pas-de-Calais | TH]
  • At a meeting with Winston Churchill, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, General Sir Edmund Ironside, agreed to accept the position of Commander-in-Chief Home Forces. He would be suceeded by as CIGS by his deputy, Sir John Dill. ww2dbase [AC]
  • A unit of the newly formed US Marine Corps Defense Battalions began the Minor Landing and Base Defense Exercise at San Clemente Island, California, United States. ww2dbase [San Clemente Island, California | CPC]
  • After being reinforced through Maleme airfield on Crete, Greece, German Stuka dive bombers attacked Allied lines at 1600 hours, softening defenses for a ground assault toward Galatas on the northern coast. Elsewhere on the island, German aircraft bombed Heraklion. ww2dbase [Balkans Campaign | TH]
  • Battleship Bismarck sailed for Saint-Nazaire, closely monitored by Allied aircraft and warships. ww2dbase [Bismarck | CPC]
  • British cruisers HMS Suffolk and HMS Norfolk lost radar contact with German battleship Bismarck at 0306 hours as the German ship unexpectedly turned west. Several hours later, the British learned of Bismarck's general area after intercepting a radio message sent by Admiral Lütjens. All British attempts to locate Bismarck on this date, however, failed. ww2dbase [Battle of Denmark Strait | CPC]
  • German submarine U-103 sank Egyptian ship Radames off Monrovia, Liberia at 1631 hours, killing 1. At 2213 hours, U-103 struck again, sinking Dutch ship Wangi Wangi, killing 1. ww2dbase [CPC]
  • Luftwaffe Lieutenant-General Kurt Student arrived at Maleme in Crete, Greece. ww2dbase [Kurt Student | AC]
  • HMS Eagle arrived at Freetown, Sierra Leone, British West Africa and refueled. ww2dbase [Eagle | CPC]
  • Pierre Laval criticized the Vichy French government during an interview with American journalist Ralph Heinzen in Paris, France. ww2dbase [Pierre Laval | Paris | CPC]
  • German Type IXC U-Boat U-505 was launched down at Deutsche Werft in Hamburg, Germany. ww2dbase [Deutsche Werft Hamburg | U-505 | Hamburg | DS]

25 May 1941 Interactive Map

  • USS S-28 arrived at Port Angeles, Washington, United States. ww2dbase [S-28 | CPC]
  • German He 111 torpedo bombers and Ju 88 bombers attacked Allied convoy PQ-16 475 miles northeast of Iceland one He 111 was shot down by a British Hurricane fighter. To the east, German Fw 200, Bv 138, and two Ju 88 aircraft successively shadowed QP-12 starting at 1400 hours British catapult aircraft merchantman Empire Moon launched her Hurricane fighter which shot down a Ju 88 aircraft but Flying Officer John Kendal would die when his parachute failed to open in time after he bailed out. At 1910 hours, 6 German Ju 88 and 7 He 111 aircraft attacked QP-12, damaging US freighter City of Joliet. ww2dbase [Arctic Convoys | CPC]
  • Destroyer Yukikaze arrived at Saipan, Mariana Islands. ww2dbase [Yukikaze | CPC]
  • USS Drum sank Japanese merchant ship Kitakata Maru 125 miles southwest of Tokyo, Japan. ww2dbase [Drum | CPC]
  • USS Pompano sank Japanese tanker Tokyo Maru 50 miles west of Okinawa, Japan. ww2dbase [Pompano | CPC]
  • USS Tautog sank Japanese merchant ship Shoka Maru 440 miles southwest of Ulithi, Caroline Islands. ww2dbase [Tautog | CPC]
  • Japanese submarine I-9 launched her floatplane for a reconnaissance mission over Adak and Kanaga islands in the Aleutian Islands on the same day, the Japanese Northern Area Fleet under Admiral Boshiro Hosogaya departed Japan for the conquest of nearby Attu and Kiska islands. On the US side, the Japanese radio message intercepted on 20 May 1942 was partially decrypted, giving the Americans a good idea of the scale of the Midway attack the Americans missed one critical component, however, as the part regarding the battleship fleet, with Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's personal participation aboard battleship Yamato, was not decrypted. ww2dbase [Battle of Midway and the Aleutian Islands | CPC]
  • 1942-05-25 German submarine-558 sank US ship Beatrice 50 miles southwest of Kingston, Jamaica at 0134 hours 1 was killed, 30 survived. At 1552 hours, U-156 damaged destroyer USS Blakeley off Martinique, blowing away 60 feet of bow with a torpedo (6 were killed, 116 survived) Blakeley would be able to make it to Port de France, Martinique for temporary repairs. ww2dbase [Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico Campaigns | CPC]
  • Léon Degrelle was awarded the Iron Cross 1st Class. ww2dbase [Léon Degrelle | CPC]
  • The construction of LST-412 was ordered. ww2dbase [LST-412 | CPC]
  • Engineers and staff officers of the Japanese 25th Air Flotilla and 8th Base Force departed Rabaul, New Britain by flying boat to inspect prospective airfield building sites on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. ww2dbase [Guadalcanal Campaign | Rabaul, New Britain | CPC]
  • Destroyer Yuzuki arrived at Truk, Caroline Islands. She was assigned to Destroyer Division 29 of Destroyer Squadron 6 of the Fourth Fleet. ww2dbase [Yuzuki | Truk | CPC]
  • Chinese 38th Infantry Division began to cross the border from Burma into India. ww2dbase [Invasion of Burma | CPC]
  • Captain Jojima was relieved by Captain Masafumi Arima as the commanding officer of Shokaku. ww2dbase [Shokaku | CPC]
  • USS Permit fired four torpedoes at a Japanese transport in the Makassar Strait all four torpedoes missed. ww2dbase [Permit | Makassar Strait | CPC]
  • Soviet troops trapped at Izium, Ukraine made a major attempt to break the encirclement in failure, and the continued German pressured reduced the Soviet pocket to an area roughly 10 miles wide and 2 miles deep. ww2dbase [Second Battle of Kharkov | Izium, Kharkov | CPC]
  • German submarine U-593 sank Panamanian tanker Persephone 10 miles off New Jersey, United States at 2053 hours 9 were killed, 28 survived. ww2dbase [Second Happy Time | New Jersey | CPC]
  • Andrew Higgins' landing craft competed with US Navy's standard landing craft in choppy waters at Norfolk, Virginia, United States Higgins' boat defeated the US Navy boat in all categories. ww2dbase [Andrew Higgins | Norfolk, Virginia | CPC]
  • Stephen Hopkins began its service. ww2dbase [CPC]
  • Companies C and D of the 2nd Raider Battalion and the 37mm battery of the 3rd Defense Battalion of the United States Marine Corps arrived at Midway via USS St. Louis. ww2dbase [Midway Bases | St. Louis | Midway | CPC]

25 May 1942 Interactive Map

  • Philippe Leclerc was promoted to the rank of division general. ww2dbase [Philippe Leclerc | CPC]
  • Chinese 86th Corps, having held the Japanese 39th Division attack at the shore of the Yangtze River since the previous day, fell back toward Pianyan, Hubei Province, China. Earlier in the afternoon, Chiang Kaishek had personally telephoned area commander Wu Qiwei, stressing the importance of holding Pianyan. ww2dbase [Battle of Exi | Pianyan, Hubei | CPC]
  • Joseph Goebbels noted in his diary that the industrial and residential districts in Dortmund, Germany were heavily damaged by Allied bombing. ww2dbase [Bombing of Hamburg, Dresden, and Other Cities | Dortmund, Westfalen-Süd | CPC]
  • In a conference in Berlin, Germany, Albert Speer recommended that the funding for military research be focused on the V-2 rocket program rather than being spread around a wide range of projects that included jets, heat-seeking missiles, sound-seeking torpedoes, and others. Ultimately this recommendation would be ignored. ww2dbase [V-Weapons Campaign | Albert Speer | Berlin | CPC]
  • USS Tunny departed Pearl Harbor, US Territory of Hawaii for her third war patrol. ww2dbase [Pearl Harbor Navy Base and Ford Island Naval Air Station | Tunny | Pearl Harbor, Oahu | CPC]
  • USS Permit arrived at Pearl Harbor, US Territory of Hawaii, ending her eighth war patrol. ww2dbase [Permit | Pearl Harbor, Oahu | CPC]
  • Barbers Point Naval Air Station: Bachelor Officer Quarters (BOQ) "C" turned over to station. ww2dbase [Barbers Point Naval Air Station | Ewa, Oahu | DS]
  • 507 men and 528 women of the Gypsy camp in Birkenau of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp system, most of whom were from Poland and Austria, were gassed. At least several hundred of them were sick, many of whom with typhus, thus giving the camp authorities to write off their deaths as natural. ww2dbase [Discovery of Concentration Camps and the Holocaust | Auschwitz Concentration Camp | Oswiecim | CPC]
  • A Victoria Cross award was gazetted for John Linton, who had recently been lost when the submarine HMS Turbulent which he commanded became missing in action in mid-Mar 1943, for the sustained period of leadership during the war. ww2dbase [CPC]
  • USS Whale arrived off Apra, Guam, Mariana Islands and observed Japanese activities inside the harbor. ww2dbase [Whale | Apra | CPC]
  • The first British mission to coordinate with local partisans parachuted into Yugoslavia. ww2dbase [TH]

25 May 1943 Interactive Map

  • Germans launched combined ground-airborne assault on Tito's headquarters in Drvar, Bosnia, Yugoslavia. ww2dbase [TH]
  • Submarine Sea Robin was launched, sponsored by the wife of US Navy Captain Homer Ambrose, the production superintendent at the Portsmouth Navy Yard in Kittery, Maine, United States where the submarine was built. ww2dbase [Sea Robin | CPC]
  • USS Pollack fired four torpedoes at a Japanese destroyer in the Pacific Ocean all torpedoes missed. ww2dbase [Pollack | CPC]
  • Chindit forces abandoned the Blackpool site in Burma. ww2dbase [Operation Thursday | CPC]
  • USS Flying Fish sank a Japanese transport and damaged another transport at dawn off the Philippine Islands, hitting them with 4 of 4 torpedoes fired. ww2dbase [Flying Fish | CPC]
  • William Halsey gave a farewell speech to SOPAC personnel at Emirau, Bismarck Islands. ww2dbase [William Halsey | Emirau | CPC]
  • Japanese troops captured Luoyang, China. ww2dbase [Operation Ichigo | Luoyang, Henan | CPC]
  • US 3rd Division captured Cisterna, Italy after house-to-house fighting, nearly wiping out 362nd Infantry Division in the process nearby, US 1st Armored Division engaged German Herman Göring Division at Valmontone while US Fifth Army troops linked up with the Anzio contingent. At the end of the day, Mark Clark ordered Lucian Truscott to turn north toward Rome without informing Harold Alexander. ww2dbase [Battle of Anzio | Lazio | TH, CPC]
  • Polish troops captured Piedimonte, Italy. ww2dbase [Battle of Monte Cassino | Piedimonte | CPC]
  • Landing ship No. 108 was launched. ww2dbase [No. 101/103-class | CPC]
  • Landing ship No. 152 was completed. ww2dbase [No. 101/103-class | CPC]
  • Landing ship No. 104 was sunk by US aircraft west of Luzon island, Philippines. ww2dbase [No. 101/103-class | South China Sea | CPC]
  • King George VI of the United Kingdom and Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery visited USS Ancon. ww2dbase [Ancon | England | CPC]
  • USS Portland arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard for repairs and an overhaul. ww2dbase [Mare Island Navy Yard | Portland | Vallejo, California | DS]

25 May 1944 Interactive Map

  • USS Blenny reported sinking a small Japanese craft with torpedoes. ww2dbase [Blenny | CPC]
  • Operation Olympic, the invasion of Japan, was approved by the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, setting the date at 1 Nov 1945. ww2dbase [Preparations for Invasion of Japan | TH]
  • Japanese special attack aircraft sank destroyer USS Bates and damaged several other ships off Okinawa, Japan. Part of these attacks included an Ohka combat sortie by 11 G4M bombers, most of which were turned back due to poor weather while the few that launched their Ohka weapons reported no hits. ww2dbase [Okinawa Campaign | CPC]
  • Australian Private Leslie Starcevitch won the Victoria Cross during the capture of Beaufort, North Borneo by destroying a series of Japanese bunkers that had been holding up the Australian advance. ww2dbase [AC]
  • Submarine I-369 was taken out of commission for conversion into an aviation gasoline submarine-transport. ww2dbase [I-369 | CPC]
  • Bataan (Tribal-class) was commissioned into service. ww2dbase [Bataan (Tribal-class) | CPC]
  • The destroyer escort USS Bates was sunk by a Japanese special attack aircraft off Okinawa, Japan. ww2dbase [AC]
  • The Japanese Navy reorganized the 3rd Air Fleet (now with 13th, 25th, and 27th Air Flotillas) and the 5th Air Fleet (now with 12th and 72nd Air Flotillas and 13 air groups). ww2dbase [CPC]
  • USS Iowa arrived off Kyushu, Japan. ww2dbase [Iowa | CPC]
  • USS Ray sank 2 small Japanese vessels west of Japan with her deck gun. ww2dbase [Ray | CPC]
  • USS Parche began her sixth war patrol, the first half of which would be on lifeguard station south of Japan. ww2dbase [Parche | CPC]
  • Philippe Leclerc was promoted to the rank of corps general. ww2dbase [Philippe Leclerc | CPC]
  • 464 American B-29 bombers conducted a raid on Tokyo, Japan. 26 aircraft were lost, which was the highest one-day loss. ww2dbase [Bombing of Tokyo and Other Cities | Tokyo | CPC]
  • Yukio Araki and the 72nd Shinbu Squadron was relocated to Bansei Airfield, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. ww2dbase [Yukio Araki | Kaseda, Kagoshima | CPC]
  • Allied repatriation ship Hikawa Maru arrived at Bali, Dutch East Indies and embarked Japanese personnel. She departed later on the same day. ww2dbase [Hikawa Maru | Bali | CPC]
  • Rudolf Höss was driven to the airport of Nürnberg (Nuremberg), Germany and was placed on a US aircraft for his transfer to Polish authorities at Warsaw, Poland. ww2dbase [Nuremberg Trials and Other Trials Against Germany | Rudolf Höss | Nürnberg, Franken | CPC]

25 May 1952 Interactive Map

Photo(s) dated 25 May 1953

25 May 1953 Interactive Map

  • Maksim Saburov's office of the Chairman of State Planning Committee of the Soviet Union was reorganized as Chairman of the State Economic Commission on Current Planning of the Soviet Union. ww2dbase [Maksim Saburov | CPC]
  • Ancon was officially returned by the Maine Maritime Academy to the United States Maritime Administration. Later on the same day, the control of the ship was turned over to North American Smelting Company. ww2dbase [Ancon | CPC]
  • Communist Chinese government declared the Jianqiao Airfield site in Zhejiang Province, China a historic site. ww2dbase [Jianqiao Airfield | Hangzhou, Zhejiang | CPC]

25 May 2006 Interactive Map

Timeline Section Founder: Thomas Houlihan
Contributors: Alan Chanter, C. Peter Chen, Thomas Houlihan, Hugh Martyr, David Stubblebine
Special Thanks: Rory Curtis

Did you enjoy this article or find this article helpful? If so, please consider supporting us on Patreon. Even $1 per month will go a long way! Thank you.


NavWeaps Forums

1860 - A landing party of Marines are put ashore at Panama from sloop-of-war USS St. Mary's during an insurrection. The Marines capture the railroad station in an attempt to establish order.

1863 - During the Civil War, steamer USS Clyde seizes Confederate schooner Amaranth near the Florida Keys.

1864 - American Civil War: Suffering from leaks due to poor hull construction, casemate ironclad CSS North Carolina foundered near the mouth of the Cape Fear River off Smithville, North Carolina that is about 400 yards (377 meters) SbW of modern-day Waterfront Park in Southport.

1864 - American Civil War, Union blockade: A Union flotilla destroyed 17 Confederate boats on the Potomac River off Charles County, Maryland.

1922 - Dr. Albert Taylor and Leo Young, scientists at the US Naval Aircraft Radio Laboratory, make the first successful detections of objects by “radio observation.” They use wireless waves to detect objects not visible due to weather or darkness. This insight leads to the advent of radar.

1941 - SS Patrick Henry, the first U.S. Liberty ship, is launched by President Franklin D. Roosevelt at Baltimore, Md. Numerous other vessels are launched on that day, known as "Liberty Fleet Day."

1942 - Freighter SS Stephen Hopkins engages German auxiliary cruiser Stier, and supply ship Tannenfels, in a surface gunnery action in the central South Atlantic. Stier sinks SS Stephen Hopkins but the German raider sinks after having receiving heavy damage by SS Stephen Hopkins naval armed guard, Lt. j.g. Kenneth M. Willett. For his actions, Willett posthumously receives the Navy Cross.

From another source: On 18 September, Liberty Ship Stephen Hopkins sailed from Cape Town, South Africa, to Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana. Several days out of Cape Town the radio operator received a message warning of German raiders. On the morning of the 27 th , in the mid-South Atlantic, some 1,290 nm (2,400 km) ESE of Rio De Janeiro, a lookout spotted two ships in the haze flying signal flags. They were German 5,000-ton raider Stier and 7,800-ton blockade runner Tannenfels. Both immediately began firing on the Liberty ship, and what ensued was one of the most remarkable surface engagements of the war.
Captain Paul Buck immediately turned Hopkins' stern to the raiders. The armed guards manned the four-inch stern gun to defend the ship. The gun crew fired as rapidly as possible on the smaller raider. Fire from Stier killed the gun crew one by one, and volunteers replaced those who had fallen. At the same time, Tannenfels remained at a distance, raking Hopkins with machine gun fire that was returned. Stier had a fire control system that enabled her to fire salvos and hit the Liberty ship repeatedly. One shell hit one of the main boilers, reducing the speed of Stephen Hopkins to one knot.
Shells struck Hopkins near the waterline, and incendiary shells eventually set fire to the main deckhouse as the ship slowly sank. Stier, however, had paid for the attack. Hopkins' gun crew had repeatedly struck the smaller raider, now in flames and in a sinking condition. After about twenty minutes of fierce firing the master sounded the ship's whistle to abandon ship. In one last act of defiance Cadet Midshipman Edwin O'Hara fired the five remaining shells from the four-inch gun, and all struck Stier. A salvo aimed at the gun killed O'Hara after he fired the last round. The able-bodied men helped place the wounded in the only undamaged lifeboat. This boat searched for two hours picking up survivors. The ship's complement originally consisted of eight officers, thirty-three men, and fifteen armed guards, but only nineteen men cleared the ship. Only fifteen of these men survived, five gunners, one officer, and nine men. After a thirty-one day trip, they made landfall at a small fishing village on the coast of Brazil.

1942 - While leading a group of landing craft during the Guadalcanal Campaign, Signalman 1st Class Douglas A. Munro, USCG, participates in the evacuation of the First Battalion, Seventh Marines from Matanikau River, Guadalcanal. Using his boat as a shield between the Japanese and the Marines, he enables the operation to proceed successfully, but is killed by enemy gunfire. For his "extraordinary heroism and conspicuous gallantry", Munro is posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.

1946 - Geoffrey de Havilland, Jr., is killed when de Havilland DH 108, TG306, second prototype, breaks up in flight, coming down in the Thames near Egypt Bay.
Photo aircraft type and details
Crash details

1950 - An Argentine Air Force Vickers VC.1 Viking, T-8, was burnt out in a hangar fire at El Palomar, Argentina.
Photo aircraft type

1954 - Sole Folland Midge prototype, G-39-1, crashes into trees at Chilbolton, England, killing the Swiss pilot. Cause was believed to have been inadvertent application of full nose-down trim.
Aircraft photo and details

1955 - A P2V-5 Neptune patrol plane of Early Warning Squadron 4 is lost with nine crew members and two journalists while tracking Hurricane Janet over the Caribbean Sea.

1956 – Air Force test pilot Captain Milburn Apt was the first person to exceed Mach 3 when he flew X-2 #1 to 104,814 feet (31,946 meters) and Mach 3.196. After engine shutoff, the aircraft went out of control and Captain Apt was unable to recover. This was the 20 th and final flight in the X-2 program and the only fatality.
Details of last flight
Cockpit video

1961 - A U.S. Air Force Boeing RB-47K Stratojet, 53-4279, of the 55th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, loses number six engine during takeoff from Forbes AFB (now Topeka Regional Airport), Kansas, crashes, killing all four crew, aircraft commander Lt. Col. James G. Woolbright, copilot 1st Lt. Paul R. Greenwalt (also reported as Greenawalt), navigator Capt. Bruce Kowol, and crew chief S/Sgt. Myron Curtis. Cause was contaminated water-alcohol in assisted takeoff system.

1962 – NASA test pilot was to fly X-15 #2 to investigate stability without the ventral fin, but he accidently tripped the ejection seat handles and could not restow them. Flight cancelled.

1967 - A Lockheed SP-2H Neptune, BuNo 147946, of VP-30, collides with a US Navy Vought RF-8G Crusader, BuNo 146864, assigned to VFP-62, Detachment 38, NAS Cecil Field (now Cecil Commerce Center), Jacksonville, Florida, during a heavy rainstorm, near Jacksonville Beach, Florida, crashing on the swampy east bank of the Intracoastal Waterway. The Crusader, which was operating off USS Shangri-La, (CVA-38) also impacts near Jacksonville Beach. The Neptune was carrying two officers and three enlisted men. The pilot was the only occupant of the jet. All six KWF.

1977 - United States Marine Corps McDonnell Douglas RF-4B Phantom II, BuNo 157344, c/n 3717, 'RF611', of VMFP-2, flown by a USMC crew based at Naval Air Facility Atsugi, en route to USS Midway (CV-41) in Sagami Bay, suffers a mechanical malfunction, the port engine catches fire, and crashes into a residential neighborhood, killing two boys, ages 1 and 3, and injuring seven others, several seriously. The two-man crew of the aircraft, Capt. J. E. Miller, of Mendota, Illinois, and 1st Lt. D. R. Durbin, of Natchitoches, Louisiana, eject and are not seriously injured.
The crash destroys several houses. The boys' mother is also severely burned. Due to the fear that she may be adversely affected during her recovery by the shock, she is not told until 29 January 1979, that her sons have died. The mother dies in 1982, aged 31, of complications from her injuries.

1987 - Angolan MiG-23 Flogger pilot Chao Gondin shared in the downing of a South African Air Force Mirage F.1 with Alberto Ley Rivas. Rivas claimed a second South African Air Force Mirage, possibly on the same date.

1991 - SAC forces stand down from Alert status.
Details

2016 - A Pakistan Air Force JF-17 Block 2 crashes into the Arabian Sea during 'Exercise High Mark'. The pilot ejects and survives.
Photo aircraft type

Sep 28, 2019 #1542 2019-09-28T00:02

1822 - Under Commodore David Porter’s West India Squadron, sloop-of-war USS Peacock raids a pirate camp at Funda Bay (Bay of Fundy?), burning two pirate boats, capturing five others, while also liberating "89 sacks of coffee concealed in the woods. "

1850 - Flogging on Navy and merchant marine ships is abolished by an appropriation bill by Congress, which President Millard Fillmore signs into law.

1861 - During the Civil War, side-wheel steamer USS Susquehanna captures Confederate schooner San Juan bound for Elizabeth City, N.C., with a cargo of salt, sugar, and gin.

1912 - Wright Model B, U.S. Army Signal Corps serial number 4, crashes at College Park Airport, Maryland, killing two crew, Lieutenant L. C. Rockwell and Corporal Frank S. Scott. On 20 July 1917, the Signal Corps Aviation School is named Rockwell Field (now NAS North Island) in honor of 2nd Lt. Lewis C. Rockwell, killed in this crash, and Scott Field, Illinois is named for the first enlisted personnel killed in an aviation crash. Scott Air Force Base remains the only U.S. Air Force base named for an enlisted man.

1942 – US merchantman Alcoa Mariner was torpedoed by U-175 while en route from Trinidad, BWI, to Georgetown, British Guiana (now Guyana), to load bauxite ore. The freighter sailed alone and had not steered an evasive course. Twenty miles off the Orinoco River, Venezuela, one of the armed guards spotted the wake of a torpedo. The master ordered the helmsman to give the ship hard right rudder, and the torpedo passed fifteen feet astern. Three minutes later a torpedo struck the port side just forward of the poop deck. The explosion opened a crack three feet wide across the deck, destroyed the ship's interior compartments, and flooded the engine room. The stem dropped 30°, apparently held in place by the shaft. The crew secured the engines, and the eight officers, thirty-three men, and thirteen armed guards abandoned ship in four lifeboats and by jumping overboard. An hour after the crew abandoned the freighter, U-175 put a second torpedo into the ship aft of the engine room on the port side. Mariner sank rapidly by the stem and disappeared at 0705. Six hours later Canadian MS Turret Cape rescued all hands and landed them in Georgetown.

1954 - Fourth of 13 North American X-10s, GM-19310, c/n 4, on Navaho X-10 flight number 10, a structural test flight, successfully makes extreme maneuvers at Mach 1.84. The automated landing system attempts to make landing flare 6 m below the runway level at Edwards AFB, California. Vehicle impacts at high speed and is destroyed. However, the flight sets a speed record for a turbojet powered aircraft.

1957 - After reconfiguration and reclassification, former LST-32 becomes USS Alameda County (AVB 1), an advance aviation base ship. The first of her class, she is designated to provide fuel, spare parts, technicians, and facilities necessary to establish and operate an airstrip for patrol and carrier aircraft in locations where there are no base facilities.

1961 – Navy test pilot Forrest Petersen flew X-15 #2 to investigate heat transfer, stability and control parameters. He reached 101,800 feet (31,027 meters) and Mach 5.30. The aircraft encountered temperatures of 1,000°F. Flight time was 8’41”.

1962 – NASA test pilot Jack McKay flew X-15 #2 to check out aircraft heat transfer and control with the ventral fin off at lower altitudes and Mach numbers. He reached 68,200 feet (20,786 meters) and Mach 4.22. Radio communications problems were encountered. Flight time was 9’27”.

1964 – Air Force test pilot Joe Engle flew X-15 #3 to investigate ablative materials and boundary layer noise. An altitude of 97,000 feet (29,564 meters) was attained and Mach 5.59. There was a malfunction of the inertial navigation system and minor black smoke in the cockpit. Flight time was 9’34”.

1964 - The first deployment of a Polaris A-3 missile takes place on board USS Daniel Webster (SSBN 626) from Charleston, S.C.

1965 – NASA test pilot Jack McKay flew X-15 #3 to check out the NSL Scanner (?) and conduct boundary layer noise tests. The aircraft reached 295,600 feet (90,094 meters) and Mach 5.33. Flight time was 11’56”.

1966 – Air Force test pilot Mike Adams was to fly X-15 #1 for his first flight in the program, but bad weather forced an abort.

1971 - A U.S. Navy Lockheed P-3 Orion, on patrol over the Sea of Japan, is fired on by a Soviet Sverdlov class cruiser in international waters. The P-3 was checking a group of Soviet Navy ships cruising off the shore of Japan when crew members reported seeing tracer rounds fired well ahead of the Orion. Immediately following the incident, authorities recalled the P-3 to its base at MCAS Iwakuni/Maritime Self-Defense Force Iwakuni Air Station, and all surveillance craft were pulled back five miles.

1981 – (28 or 30 Sep, sources differ) During a NAVAIR weapons release test over the Chesapeake Bay, a McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18A-3-MC Hornet, BuNo 160782, c/n 8, out of NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, drops a vertical ejector bomb rack with an inert Mk. 82 bomb from the port wing, which shears off the outer starboard wing of Douglas TA-4J Skyhawk camera chase aircraft, BuNo 156896, c/n 13989, which catches fire as it begins an uncontrolled spin. Two crew successfully eject before the Skyhawk impacts in the bay, the whole sequence caught on film from a second chase aircraft.
Video

1987 - A USAF B-1B Lancer, 84-0052, c/n 12, of the 7th Bomb Wing, Dyess AFB, Texas, crashes near La Junta, Colorado, following impact with an American white pelican. Three crew members eject safely, one killed due to an ejection seat malfunction. Two additional crew members die due to lack of time and proper flight conditions to accomplish manual bailout. Aircraft destroyed on impact. "The Air Force, which said no weapons were aboard the aircraft, said the last radio transmission from the crew reported that two of the bomber's four engines were on fire. The F.A.A. said the aircraft was at 15,500 feet when the radio report came in, suggesting that the pilot had climbed after the collision to save the aircraft or give the crew time to parachute."
The Air Force disclosed on 28 September "that the survivors of the crash were Capt. Joseph S. Butler, 33 years old, of Rocky Mount, N.C., a student defensive officer Capt. Lawrence H. Haskell, 33, of Harrisburg, Pa., a student aircraft commander, and Maj. William H. Price, 42, of Yuma, Ariz., an instructor in offensive systems. They were said to be in good condition. The three who were killed were Maj. James T. Acklin, 37, of Champaign, Ill., an instructor pilot, First Lieut. Ricky M. Bean, 27, of Farmington, Me., a student pilot, and Maj. Wayne D. Whitlock, 39, of Johnson City, Tenn., an instructor in defensive systems."

1988 - Soviet MiG-23MLD Flogger pilots Vladmir Astakhov and Boris Gavrilov each shot down an Iranian helicopter.

2000 - A US Navy Beechcraft T-34C Turbo-Mentor of VT-10 crashes in a hayfield in Baldwin County near Silverhill, Alabama, killing both crew.

2009 - A Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) NAMC YS-11 a twin-engined turboprop transport crashed while landing at JMSDF Ozuki Air Field in Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. The landing in light rain, the aircraft suffered an overshoot of the runway and crashed through the airfield perimeter fence, crossing a service road and plunged nose-first into a rice field. The 11 JMSDF crew members of the aircraft were uninjured and the NAMC YS-11 aircraft suffered bent propellers.
Photo aircraft type

2016 - Swiss Air Force Eurocopter AS532 Cougar, T-338, c/n 2545, crashes in the Gotthard Pass after hitting a power line during takeoff, killing both pilots the remaining occupant is seriously injured.
Photo aircraft type

Sep 28, 2019 #1543 2019-09-28T23:36

1829 - Brig-sloop USS Hornet is driven from her anchorage off Tampico, Mexico by a gale. She is never seen again and her crew of 140 is lost.

1854 - Sloop-of-war USS Albany departs Aspinwall, Columbia (now Colon, Panama) for New York with a crew of 193. She is never seen again.

1861 - American Civil War: Union 244-ton brigantine Joseph Park was used for target practice and burned in the Atlantic Ocean off Brazil by merchant raider CSS Sumter. Sumter had captured her on 25 or 28 September (sources disagree).

1864 - American Civil War, Union blockade: British steamer Night Hawk, a blockade runner, was forced aground and burned on the coast of North Carolina off Fort Fisher by screw steamer USS Niphon.

1918 - World War I: USS Minnesota (BB-22) struck a mine laid by U-117 in the Atlantic Ocean, 20 nm (37 km) off the Fenwick Island Lighthouse, Delaware and was severely damaged. She was subsequently repaired and returned to service.
Damage photo

1921 - First Orenco D manufactured by Curtiss, 63281, McCook Project Number 'P163', loses entire leading edge of its upper wing, crashing at McCook Field (now Kettering Field Sports Complex), Dayton, Ohio. An investigation by an officer of the flying test section of the USAAS Engineering Division reveals that the Orenco Ds are badly constructed, no fewer than 30 defects and faulty fittings being recorded in the published report, forcing the Air Service to withdraw all Orenco Ds from use (Joe Baugher cites date of 28 September).
Photo aircraft type

1927 - Georg Wulf, co-founder of Focke-Wulf, is killed in the crash of the first Focke-Wulf F 19 Ente ("Duck"), D-1960. Second airframe is constructed, eventually put on display in Berlin air museum, destroyed in bombing raid in 1944.
Photo aircraft type

1940 - Avro Ansons, L9162 and N4876, of No. 2 Service Flying Training School RAAF (2 OUT RAAF) collide in mid-air becoming locked together. A successful emergency landing was made at Brocklesby, New South Wales (no existing airstrip on Google Earth). L9162 became a ground instructional airframe, while N4876 was repaired and returned to service.
Crash photo and details

1944 - USS Narwhal (SS 167) evacuates 81 allied prisoners of war from Lanboyan Point, Sindangan Bay, Mindanao, Philippines. They had survived the Sept. 7 sinking of Japanese POW transport Shinyo Maru.

1944 - On 26 September, Liberty Ship Edward H. Crockett sailed from Archangel, USSR, in Convoy RA-60 bound for Scotland. The cargo ship proceeded in convoy station #102. When about 115 nm (214 km) North of Ingøy, Norway, U-310 fired a torpedo that struck the starboard side forward of the #4 hatch. The explosion broke the shaft, wrecked the engine, and damaged the hold's forward bulkhead. The master ordered the four lifeboats to be lowered while the men stood by their abandon ship stations. An hour later he ordered three of the boats to British rescue ship Zamalek. The remaining lifeboat took the master, the second and third mates, and the chief officer to the rescue ship. A British destroyer sank Crockett with gunfire after the last boat left the ship's side. The complement consisted of eight officers, thirty-three men, and twenty-seven armed guards. The first assistant engineer died in the engine room and was the only casualty.

1945 – Former USS TATOOSH (YAG-1) was loaded with old ammunition and towed to a point 10 miles N of Adak by ATR-32 and scuttled.

1946 - Lockheed P2V Neptune, Truculent Turtle, departs Perth, Australia on a long distance non-stop, non-refueling flight to the mainland United States that ends on Oct. 1 at Columbus, Ohio. The flight breaks the world record for distance without fueling at 11,235.6 miles over 55 hours and 17 minutes.
Details

1946 - Blue Angels pilot Lt. (JG) Ros "Robby" Robinson is killed in Grumman F8F-1 Bearcat, BuNo 95986, Blue Angels No. 4, at NAS Jacksonville, Florida, when he fails to pull out of a dive during a Cuban Eight manoeuvre – wingtip broke off his fighter.
Blue Angels F8F Details

1950 – Landing aboard USS Philippine Sea (CV-47), which was operating as flagship of Task Force 77 in Korean waters, Grumman F9F-2 Panther, BuNo 123432, of VF-111, crashes through all barriers and hits eleven parked aircraft.

1951 - A Royal Air Force Boeing Washington B.1, WF555, of 57 Squadron, RAF Waddington, experiences runaway propeller on number 3 (starboard inner) engine which hits number 4 (starboard outer) causing severe damage. Three crew in rear fuselage ordered to bail out before bomber makes successful wheels-up landing at a disused airfield near Amiens, France – no casualties, but airframe written off. Scrapped 3 January 1952.
Photo aircraft type

1958 - Three crewmen were killed and two were captured when a Republic of China Air Force C-46 Commando was shot down over the People's Republic of China. The captured crewmembers were released on June 30th, 1959.

1959 - USS Kearsarge (CVS 33), with Helicopter Squadron 6 and other 7th Fleet units, begin six days of disaster relief to Nagoya, Japan, after Typhoon Vera.

1961 – Air Force test pilot Robert Rushworth was to fly X-15 #1 to check out stability and control flight with lower ventral removed. Problems with the Stability Augmentation System cancelled the flight.

1964 – Air Force test pilot Robert Rushworth flew X-15 #2 to investigate aircraft stability and control, test the Star Tracker experiment and evaluate landing dynamics. He reached 97,800 feet (29,808 meters) and Mach 5.20. As he descended through 88,000 feet (26,281 meters) and Mach 4.5, the nose gear scoop door opened. This did not impede the rest of the mission. Instrumentation discrepancies were also encountered. Flight time was 9’51”.

1971 - A U.S. Air Force Lockheed C-5A Galaxy of the 443d Military Airlift Wing, Altus AFB, Oklahoma, one of six used for training, had its number one (port outer) engine tear off the pylon while advancing take-off power before brake release, setting the wing on fire. The crew evacuated safely within 90 seconds and the fire was extinguished by emergency equipment. The engine had flown up and behind the Galaxy, landing some 250 yards to the rear. The Air Force subsequently grounded six other C-5s with similar flight hours and cycles. Further investigation found cracks in younger C-5s and the entire fleet was grounded.

1985 - South African Air Force Impala Mark II pilots Leon Mare and Pine Pienaar each claimed to have shot down an Angolan Mi-25 Hind helicopter.
Impala Mk. II
Mi-25

Sep 28, 2019 #1544 2019-09-28T23:39

1829 - Brig-sloop USS Hornet is driven from her anchorage off Tampico, Mexico by a gale. She is never seen again and her crew of 140 is lost.

1854 - Sloop-of-war USS Albany departs Aspinwall, Columbia (now Colon, Panama) for New York with a crew of 193. She is never seen again.

1861 - American Civil War: Union 244-ton brigantine Joseph Park was used for target practice and burned in the Atlantic Ocean off Brazil by merchant raider CSS Sumter. Sumter had captured her on 25 or 28 September (sources disagree).

1864 - American Civil War, Union blockade: British steamer Night Hawk, a blockade runner, was forced aground and burned on the coast of North Carolina off Fort Fisher by screw steamer USS Niphon.

1918 - World War I: USS Minnesota (BB-22) struck a mine laid by U-117 in the Atlantic Ocean, 20 nm (37 km) off the Fenwick Island Lighthouse, Delaware and was severely damaged. She was subsequently repaired and returned to service.
Damage photo

1921 - First Orenco D manufactured by Curtiss, 63281, McCook Project Number 'P163', loses entire leading edge of its upper wing, crashing at McCook Field (now Kettering Field Sports Complex), Dayton, Ohio. An investigation by an officer of the flying test section of the USAAS Engineering Division reveals that the Orenco Ds are badly constructed, no fewer than 30 defects and faulty fittings being recorded in the published report, forcing the Air Service to withdraw all Orenco Ds from use (Joe Baugher cites date of 28 September).
Photo aircraft type

1927 - Georg Wulf, co-founder of Focke-Wulf, is killed in the crash of the first Focke-Wulf F 19 Ente ("Duck"), D-1960. Second airframe is constructed, eventually put on display in Berlin air museum, destroyed in bombing raid in 1944.
Photo aircraft type

1940 - Avro Ansons, L9162 and N4876, of No. 2 Service Flying Training School RAAF (2 OUT RAAF) collide in mid-air becoming locked together. A successful emergency landing was made at Brocklesby, New South Wales. L9162 became a ground instructional airframe, while N4876 was repaired and returned to service.
Crash photo and details

1944 - USS Narwhal (SS 167) evacuates 81 allied prisoners of war from Lanboyan Point, Sindangan Bay, Mindanao, Philippines. They had survived the Sept. 7 sinking of Japanese POW transport Shinyo Maru.

1944 - On 26 September, Liberty Ship Edward H. Crockett sailed from Archangel, USSR, in Convoy RA-60 bound for Scotland. The cargo ship proceeded in convoy station #102. When about 115 nm (214 km) North of Ingøy, Norway, U-310 fired a torpedo that struck the starboard side forward of the #4 hatch. The explosion broke the shaft, wrecked the engine, and damaged the hold's forward bulkhead. The master ordered the four lifeboats to be lowered while the men stood by their abandon ship stations. An hour later he ordered three of the boats to British rescue ship Zamalek. The remaining lifeboat took the master, the second and third mates, and the chief officer to the rescue ship. A British destroyer sank Crockett with gunfire after the last boat left the ship's side. The complement consisted of eight officers, thirty-three men, and twenty-seven armed guards. The first assistant engineer died in the engine room and was the only casualty.

1945 – Former USS TATOOSH (YAG-1) was loaded with old ammunition and towed to a point 10 miles N of Adak by ATR-32 and scuttled.

1946 - Lockheed P2V Neptune, Truculent Turtle, departs Perth, Australia on a long distance non-stop, non-refueling flight to the mainland United States that ends on Oct. 1 at Columbus, Ohio. The flight breaks the world record for distance without fueling at 11,235.6 miles over 55 hours and 17 minutes.
Details

1946 - Blue Angels pilot Lt. (JG) Ros "Robby" Robinson is killed in Grumman F8F-1 Bearcat, BuNo 95986, Blue Angels No. 4, at NAS Jacksonville, Florida, when he fails to pull out of a dive during a Cuban Eight manoeuvre – wingtip broke off his fighter.
Blue Angels F8F Details

1950 – Landing aboard USS Philippine Sea (CV-47), which was operating as flagship of Task Force 77 in Korean waters, Grumman F9F-2 Panther, BuNo 123432, of VF-111, crashes through all barriers and hits eleven parked aircraft.

1951 - A Royal Air Force Boeing Washington B.1, WF555, of 57 Squadron, RAF Waddington, experiences runaway propeller on number 3 (starboard inner) engine which hits number 4 (starboard outer) causing severe damage. Three crew in rear fuselage ordered to bail out before bomber makes successful wheels-up landing at a disused airfield near Amiens, France – no casualties, but airframe written off. Scrapped 3 January 1952.
Photo aircraft type

1958 - Three crewmen were killed and two were captured when a Republic of China Air Force C-46 Commando was shot down over the People's Republic of China. The captured crewmembers were released on June 30th, 1959.

1959 - USS Kearsarge (CVS 33), with Helicopter Squadron 6 and other 7th Fleet units, begin six days of disaster relief to Nagoya, Japan, after Typhoon Vera.

1961 – Air Force test pilot Robert Rushworth was to fly X-15 #1 to check out stability and control flight with lower ventral removed. Problems with the Stability Augmentation System cancelled the flight.

1964 – Air Force test pilot Robert Rushworth flew X-15 #2 to investigate aircraft stability and control, test the Star Tracker experiment and evaluate landing dynamics. He reached 97,800 feet (29,808 meters) and Mach 5.20. As he descended through 88,000 feet (26,281 meters) and Mach 4.5, the nose gear scoop door opened. This did not impede the rest of the mission. Instrumentation discrepancies were also encountered. Flight time was 9’51”.

1971 - A U.S. Air Force Lockheed C-5A Galaxy of the 443d Military Airlift Wing, Altus AFB, Oklahoma, one of six used for training, had its number one (port outer) engine tear off the pylon while advancing take-off power before brake release, setting the wing on fire. The crew evacuated safely within 90 seconds and the fire was extinguished by emergency equipment. The engine had flown up and behind the Galaxy, landing some 250 yards to the rear. The Air Force subsequently grounded six other C-5s with similar flight hours and cycles. Further investigation found cracks in younger C-5s and the entire fleet was grounded.

1985 - South African Air Force Impala Mark II pilots Leon Mare and Pine Pienaar each claimed to have shot down an Angolan Mi-25 Hind helicopter.
Impala Mk. II
Mi-25

Sep 29, 2019 #1545 2019-09-29T23:39

1800 - French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte and American envoys sign the Treaty of Mortefontaine that releases the United States from its Revolutionary War alliance with France and ends the Quasi-War.

1863 - American Civil War, Union blockade: During a blockade-running voyage from Nassau in the Bahamas to Peace Creek, Florida, with a cargo of rum and salt, British schooner Director was captured and destroyed as she exited Terraceia Creek at the entrance to the Caloosahatchie River at Punta Rasa, Florida, near modern day Fort Myers Beach, by bark USS Gem of the Sea.

1918 - During World War I, German submarine U-152 sinks transport USS Ticonderoga (ID # 1958) about 400 nm (742 km) NWbW of Flores Island in the Azores. Seriously wounded early in the battle, commanding officer Lt. Cmdr. James J. Madison remains on the bridge controlling the ship’s fight until she is abandoned. The lost included 112 Sailors and 101 Soldiers and was the greatest combat loss of life on any US Navy ship during World War I. Two of the survivors were taken as prisoners of war, the rest were rescued by United Kingdom ship Moorish Prince. For his "exceptionally heroic service" during this action, Lt. Cmdr. Madison is awarded the Medal of Honor.

1940 - Two Messerschmitt Bf 109Es of II/JG 2 collide on take-off from Octeville, France, killing both pilots.

1942 - Two pilots are killed and two injured when Lockheed P-38G-5-LO Lightning, 42-12854, piloted by William C. McConnell, by one source, or William M. McConnell, by another, taking off from the Lockheed Air Terminal (now Hollywood Burbank (Bob Hope) Airport), Burbank, California, on a test flight, swerves out of control, plows through several parked training planes, ignites, and damages a hangar of the Pacific Airmotive Company. McConnell, of San Fernando, California, a Lockheed test pilot for about two years, is killed.
"The other pilot killed was identified from papers on his body as Eddie C. Wike, of Sharon, Conn., student flier from Ryan Aeronautical school at Hemet, who was near the group of parked training planes when the accident occurred. The two injured men were John Waide, Ryan instructor from Hemet, and Harold Keefe of Hollywood, representative of an airplane engine company." Parked aircraft damaged or destroyed were Ryan PT-22s, 41-15341, 41-15610, 41-20852, and a fourth with an incorrectly recorded serial that ties up to an AT-6A-NT Texan rather than the reported PT-22.

1942 - "Hondo, Texas, Sept. 30 - Two officers and two enlisted men were killed in an airplane accident near the A.A.F. navigation school here. The dead included Capt. John G. Rafferty, 40, Monrovia, California." Lockheed A-28A-LO Hudson, 42-46980, of the 846 th School Squadron, Hondo Army Airfield Navigation School, Texas, crashed 2.5 miles E - 1.5 mile N of the base due to a spin / stall after takeoff. Capt. Rafferty was the pilot.
Photo aircraft type

1943 - USCG Wilcox (WYP-333) foundered in a storm, 100 nm (185 km) ENE of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, North Carolina, with the loss of one crewman.

1944 - Grumman F6F-3 Hellcat, BuNo. 42782, lost 125 miles (201 km) SE of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts during carrier qualifications. Pilot's name/fate unknown. Located by submarine DSV Alvin, 24 September 1968.

1944 - SS Carl G. Barth was attacked by enemy aircraft while anchored off Morotai Island, Admiralty Group. The attacking aircraft strafed the Liberty ship, causing slight damage over the length of the vessel. The ship had on board 7 officers, 45 men, 26 armed guards, and 118 passengers. The attacking aircraft wounded six of the passengers.

1944 - USS Nautilus (SS 168) lands 95 tons of supplies, 70 drums of gasoline, and four drums of oil at designated spot on Panay, Philippine Islands and embarks 47 evacuees (seven servicemen, 10 women, five civilian males, and 25 children).

1949 - The Berlin Airlift is officially terminated.
Details

1949 – First Avro 707 delta-wing research aircraft, VX784, first flown 6 September 1949 (one source says 4 September), crashes near Blackbushe on test flight out of Boscombe Down, killing Avro test pilot Flt. Lt. Eric Esler. Cause never established.
Photo aircraft type and Details

1954 - XA271 a Royal Air Force Miles Marathon T1 of No. 2 Air Navigation School dives into the ground near Calne, Wiltshire, England following structural failure of outer wings.
Photo aircraft type

1954 - The world’s first nuclear-powered submarine, USS Nautilus (SSN 571), is commissioned at Groton, Conn. On Aug. 3, 1958, she is the first U.S. vessel to transit across the geographic North Pole. Nautilus now serves as the historic ship at the Submarine Force Museum at Groton.

1965 – Air Force test pilot Pete Knight flew X-15 #1 on a pilot familiarization flight that also checked out an Infrared Scanner. He attained 76,600 feet (23,346 meters) and Mach 4.06. Flight time was 8’22”. This was Knight’s first flight in the program.

1974 – Former USS Pettit (DE-253) was sunk as a target off Puerto Rico.

1990 - SH-60B, BuNo 162343 of HSL-43, crashed into sea off Oregon killing all three crew aboard while deployed with USS Crommelin (FFG-37) at the time, headed north along the western coast off Oregon during workups.

1996 - Air Force Academy Slingsby T-3A Firefly crashes 30 miles E of Colorado Springs, Colorado when the crew, who had been practicing a forced landing, suffer engine failure during the key part of the manoeuvre, the instructor and student both killed.
Photo aircraft type and Details

Oct 01, 2019 #1546 2019-10-01T00:40

1844 - The Naval Observatory, headed by Lt. Matthew F. Maury, occupies its first permanent quarters in the Foggy Bottom district of Washington, D.C. before it moves nearly 50 years later to its present location north of Georgetown.

1861 - The United States Army Balloon Corps, consisting of five balloons and fifty men, is formed.

1864 - American Civil War, Union blockade: Pursued by screw steamer USS Niphon, British 285-, 300-, or 446-ton sidewheel paddle steamer Condor, a blockade runner, was deliberately run aground and wrecked off New Inlet on the coast of North Carolina when her pilot mistook the wreck of British steamer Night Hawk for a blockading U.S. Navy warship in the darkness. Intense Confederate fire from Fort Fisher prevented Niphon′s crew from destroying Condor. Confederate spy Rose O'Neal Greenhow tried to reach shore in one of Condor′s boats, but drowned when the boat overturned in heavy surf.

1917 – United States Revenue Cutter Mohawk collided with British tanker Vennacher in the Atlantic Ocean off Sandy Hook, New Jersey and sank. All 77 crew members were rescued by U.S. Navy patrol vessels USS Mohican (SP-117) and USS Sabalo (SP-225).

1918 – USS SC-60 collided with tanker Fred M. Weller, 1.6 nm (3.0 km) NEbE of Sea Bright, New Jersey. She sank with the loss of two men.

1942 - USS Roe (DD-418) rescues 17 merchant seamen and two Naval Armed Guard sailors of freighter SS West Chetac who drifted off the coast of Brazil for eight days after their vessel is sunk by German submarine U 175.

1942 - The Associated Press reported from San Juan, Puerto Rico, that a USAAF transport had crashed in the mountains NW of the town of Coamo, in southern Puerto Rico, killing all 22 on board. "Names of the dead were not announced immediately pending notification of relatives in the United States. Several civilians were known to have been aboard. The plane crashed shortly after its takeoff. It took hours for a searching party working afoot in the difficult mountain country to locate the wreckage."
Douglas C-39, 38-524, c/n 2081, of the 20th Troop Carrier Squadron, assigned at Losey Field (now Fort Allen Airport), Puerto Rico, piloted by Francis H. Durant, crashed 15 mi NW of Coamo.
Photo aircraft type

1942 - "VISALIA, Oct. 1 - Two Army aviation cadets and a civilian instructor were killed today in the mid-air collision of two primary training planes near Seville, five miles from their Sequoia Field (now Sequoia Field Airport) base. They were Cadets Mike Mumolo, 25, Los Angeles, and James Cameron Schwindt, 19, Santa Paul, and Instructor Edward Hedrick, 47, formerly of Ontario." Ryan PT-22s, 41-20658, flown by Schwindt, and 41-20661, flown by Mumolo, came down 7 mi E of Sequoia Field.

1943 - On 30 September, US cargo ship Metapan sailed from Palermo, Sicily, to Bizerte, Tunisia. The ship joined Convoy UGS-15, which consisted of eleven merchant ships and three escorts. While steaming in station #23, some 23 nm (43 km) EbS of Bizerte, Metapan ran over an acoustic mine. The ship suffered a small shock followed immediately by a tremendous explosion that raised the stem and pushed the ship forward. The blast at once flooded the after part of the ship, damaged the steering gear, and blew the hatch cover off the #4 hold. The master had the engines secured, and ten minutes later the seven officers, forty-three men, twenty-three armed guards, and one passenger abandoned ship in four lifeboats. Barge USS Syncline (YO-63) rescued all hands and landed them at Bizerte. The ship sank by the stem at 1345.

1946 - RAF Bristol Brigand TF.1, RH744, failed to develop sufficient power on takeoff from RAE Farnborough, overran into soft ground and flipped over, without injuries to crew. This was the first Brigand written off.
Photo aircraft type

1952 - U.S. Navy Grumman TBM-3S2 Avenger, BuNo 53439, of Air Anti-Submarine Squadron 23, NAS San Diego (now NAS North Island), California, on night radar bombing training flight strikes Pacific Ocean surface at 110 knots (200 km/h)

2 1/2 miles W of Point Loma. Both crew survive the accidental ditching, with pilot Lt. Ross C. Genz, USNR, rescued after four hours in a life raft by a civilian ship, but radarman AN Harold B. Tenney, USN, apparently drowns after evacuating the bomber and is never seen again. Wreckage discovered in 1992 during underwater survey.

1953 - A USAF North American TB-25J, 44-86779A, built as a B-25J-30/32-NC, (Joe Baugher states that it was modified and redesignated to TB-25N status, but the official accident report refers to it as a TB-25J) attached to Andrews AFB (now Joint Base Andrews), Maryland, crashes in fog and heavy overcast into the forested pinnacle of historic Pine Mountain, striking Dowdell's Knob at

2130 hrs., near Warm Springs in western Georgia, killing five of six on board, said spokesmen at Lawson AFB (now Lawson Army Airfield). The bomber struck the 1,395-foot peak at the 1,340 foot level. It had departed from Eglin AFB, Florida, at 1930 hrs. for Andrews AFB. Two Eglin airmen were among those KWF.
The sole survivor, Richard Kendall Schmidt, 19, of Rumson, New Jersey, a Navy fireman assigned to the crash crew at NAS Whiting Field, Florida, who had hitch-hiked a ride on the aircraft, was found by two farmers who heard the crash and hiked to the spot from their mountainside homes "and found the sailor shouting for help as he lay in the midst of scattered wreckage and mutilated bodies.
They said [that] they found a second man alive but base officials said [that] he died before he could be given medical attention." First on the scene was Lee Wadsworth, of Manchester, Georgia, who, while visiting his father-in-law, Homer G. Swan, in Pine Mountain Valley, had heard and seen the Mitchell in level flight at very low altitude AGL on an easterly course moments before impact at

2130 hrs. Immediately following the crash, Wadsworth, Swan, and Wadsworth's brother-in-law, Billy Colquitt, drove a truck to the knob, arriving there at 2145 hrs. After a short search, they smelled gasoline and heard the cries for help from Schmidt. They proceeded to render aid for two and a half hours until the first medical help arrived, in the person of Dr. Bates from Pine Mountain Valley. Schmidt was loaded into Dr. Bates' automobile and was driven east towards Columbus to meet the military ambulance dispatched from Martin Army hospital at Fort Benning. The semi-conscious man had died of his injuries some 35 minutes after the first responders got to him. The Air Police, and Sheriff and Coroner for Harris County arrived at

0030 hrs., 2 October. Tom Baxley, one of the farmers, said that the bodies of the dead, most of them torn by the collision, were flung about among the pine trees, and bits of the plane were hurled over a wide area. Schmidt was hospitalized with a possible hip fracture and cuts. Among the fatalities were two airmen assigned to Eglin AFB who had also hitch-hiked a ride and were on their way home on leave. The impact location is on the site of the proposed $40,000,000 Hall of History to mark a scenic point frequented by the late President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Killed were Capt. Stephen A. Clisham, pilot Capt. Virgil G. Harris, co-pilot T/Sgt. Othelier B. Hoke, flight engineer and passengers A3C Robert W. Davidson, and A2C Benny J. Shepard. Shepard, riding in the waist section aft the bomb bay, as was Schmidt, survived the initial impact and was thrown from the wreckage, but died of his severe injuries before assistance arrived.
This accident was added to the Wikipedia article on 12 June 2012. Exactly one month later, it was discovered by board members of the Pine Mountain Trail Association at the F. D. Roosevelt State Park, who had been seeking details of the 1953 accident. Based on information in this article, they were able to locate survivor Richard Schmidt within a day, and on the Veterans' Day weekend, 10 November 2012, he and Monica Clisham Coffey, the daughter of the B-25's pilot, unveiled a plaque and a memorial rock at Dowdell Knob to those who died in the crash, and in Schmidt's honor. Schmidt was also reunited with 84-year-old Robert Lee Wadsworth of nearby Manchester, and 88-year-old Billy Colquitt, "the minister who accompanied Wadsworth up the mountain and prayed with Airman 2nd Class Benny J. Shepard as he drew his dying breaths."
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1953 - "An Air Force Sabre jet plane, its electric firing device out of order, sprayed this western Pennsylvania town (Farrell, Pennsylvania) with machine gun bullets for several terror-filled seconds. The whining .50 caliber slugs riddled 12 autos, setting two afire and tore into nearly 30 buildings and homes yesterday (1 October). No one was hurt although several persons had narrow escapes. 'Something happened to one of its machine guns,' Police Chief John J. Stosito said after a conference with Maj. A. F. Martin Jr. of the Vienna Air Force Base (now Youngstown–Warren Air Reserve Station) near Warren, Ohio. The plane was on a routine flight from the base. Name of the pilot was withheld. Witnesses said [that] the craft was several thousand feet up as it zoomed over the city. Martin, who came here to conduct an investigation, said [that] there is "only about one chance in a million" of such a thing happening and added [that] the Air Force would pay all damages."

1956 - The RAF's first Avro Vulcan B.1, XA897, which completed a fly-the-flag mission to New Zealand in September, approaches Heathrow in bad weather on GCA approach, crashing short of the runway. Two pilots eject, but four crew do not have ejection seats and are killed. Aircraft Captain Squadron Leader "Podge" Howard and co-pilot Air Marshal Sir Harry Broadhurst survive. Signal delays in the primitive Ground-Controlled Approach system of the time may have let the aircraft descend too low without being warned. Undercarriage damaged in contact short of runway with control lost during attempted go-around.

1957 - Aborted takeoff at Homestead AFB (now Homestead Air Reserve Base), Florida, causes write-off of Boeing B-47B-50-BW Stratojet, 51-2317, of the 379th Bomb Wing. Gear collapses, aircraft burns, but base fire department is able to quench flames such that crew escapes – pilots blow canopy to get out, navigator egresses through his escape hatch.

1959 - English Electric test pilot Johnny W.C. Squier, flying prototype two-seat English Electric Lightning T.4, XL628, suffers structural failure, ejects at Mach 1.7, becoming first UK pilot to eject above the speed of sound. Radar tracks the descending fighter, but not the pilot as he landed in the Irish Sea, and despite an extensive search, Squier has to make his way ashore by himself after 28 hours in a dinghy. Squier passes away 30 January 2006, aged 85.
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1970 - A US Army helicopter was fired on by North Korean gun positions along the Korean DMZ.

1970 – Former USS Atlanta (IX-304/CL-104) was sunk in an explosives test off San Clemente Island, California.
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2008 - Two Aéronavale Dassault Super Etendards collide and crash into the channel of northeast France, one pilot missing.
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2019 - Former USS Ford (FFG-54) was sunk as a target off Guam.
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  • There are 150 Psalms in the Bible, the authorship of which is usually ascribed to King David, although scholars now believe that they are the work of several authors.
  • Psalm comes from the Greek psalmos, a song sung to a harp. Some ultra-orthodox Protestant sects (like the Free Church of Scotland) forbid the singing of any hymns that aren’t psalms.
  • The last Psalm in the Bible, Psalm 150, is perhaps the one most often set to music.

  • The number of sons of Ulam, who were combat archers, in the Census of the men of Israel upon return from exile (I Chronicles 8:40)
  • 150 is the sum of eight consecutive primes (7 + 11 + 13 + 17 + 19 + 23 + 29 + 31).
  • Given 150, the Mertens function returns 0.
  • In 150BC the Greek Stoic philosopher and polymath, Crates of Mallos, while laid up in Rome, staved off boredom by constructing the world’s first 3D globe. It showed four symmetrical land masses, separated by water and a central ocean.
  • The Professor’s cube is a 5 x 5 x 5 version of Rubik’s cube (which is 3 x 3 x 3). It has 150 coloured squares.

  • Steven Austad, a health researcher at the University of Texas, believes that children who are alive today could easily live to 150.
  • Based purely on body size, when compared with other mammals, humans shouldn’t live more than 30-40 years. But our large brain enables us to live in complex social groups that give us protection. The evidence is there in other species: solitary wasps have a lifespan of two weeks but social wasps live for three years.
  • In much the same way lions, which are sociable creatures, live longer than tigers, which are solitary. Austad is so sure that someone alive today will still be here in the year 2150 that he has placed a bet on it with a friend. Presumably he also believes that he will be around to collect.
  • The only animal currently capable of living for 150 years is the giant tortoise.
  • Dunbar’s number
  • Dunbar’s number is a suggested cognitive limit to the number of people with whom one can maintain stable social relationships. These are relationships in which an individual knows who each person is, and how each person relates to every other person.
  • Proponents assert that numbers larger than this generally require more restrictive rules, laws, and enforced norms to maintain a stable, cohesive group. It has been proposed to lie between 100 and 230, with a commonly used value of 150.
  • Dunbar’s number states the number of people one knows and keeps social contact with, and it does not include the number of people known personally with a ceased social relationship, nor people just generally known with a lack of persistent social relationship, a number which might be much higher and likely depends on long-term memory size.
  • Dunbar’s number was first proposed by British anthropologist Robin Dunbar, who theorized that “this limit is a direct function of relative neocortex size, and that this in turn limits group size … the limit imposed by neocortical processing capacity is simply on the number of individuals with whom a stable inter-personal relationship can be maintained.” On the periphery, the number also includes past colleagues such as high school friends with whom a person would want to reacquaint themself if they met again.

  • The 150th country to join the United Nations was Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, on September 16, 1980
  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 150 recommended to the General Assembly that the Republic of the Ivory Coast be admitted to membership in the United Nations
  • European Union Council Regulation (EC) No 150/2003 of 21 January 2003 is regarding suspending import duties on certain weapons and military equipment
  • US Congress Senate Bill 150 amends the federal criminal code to ban the import, sale, manufacture, transfer, or possession of a semiautomatic assault weapon, including semiautomatic rifles, semiautomatic pistols, semiautomatic shotguns, etc., that can accept a detachable magazine and has any one of the following characteristics: (1) a pistol grip (2) a forward grip (3) a folding, telescoping, or detachable stock (4) a grenade or rocket launcher (5) a barrel shroud or (6) a threaded barrel.
  • In cricket 150 runs is a milestone for a batsman.
  • In Round 20 of the 2011 AFL season, Geelong inflicted the worst ever defeat on the Gold Coast Suns by 150 points.

In books, music, movies and TV

  • Gibson Guitar Corp.
  • Gibson Guitar Corp. is an American maker of guitars and other instruments, now based in Nashville, Tennessee.
  • Orville Gibson founded the company in 1902 as as “The Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co., Ltd.” in Kalamazoo, Michigan to make mandolin-family instruments.
  • Gibson invented archtop guitars by constructing the same type of carved, arched tops used on violins. By the 1930s, the company was also making flattop acoustic guitars, as well as one of the first commercially available hollow-body electric guitars, used and popularized by Charlie Christian.
  • It was bought by Chicago Musical Instruments in 1944, which was then acquired by the E.C.L. conglomerate that changed its name to Norlin Inc. This was seen as the beginning of an era of mismanagement.
  • Gibson sells guitars under a variety of brand names and built one of the world’s most iconic guitars, the Gibson Les Paul. Many Gibson instruments are among the most collectible guitars.
  • It has produced various models with the 󈧓 ‘ designation including:
  • Acoustic guitars J-150 Maple L-150 Custom
  • Electric guitars ES-150 EM-150 Mandolin (1936-1971)
  • Triumph Trident T150
  • Triumph Engineering Co Ltd was a British motorcycle manufacturing company, based originally in Coventry and then in Solihull at Meriden. A new company, Triumph Motorcycles Ltd based in Hinckley gained the name rights after the end of the company in the 1980s and is now one of the world’s major motorcycle manufacturers producing models like the Trident T150.

  • Suzuki Raider 150
  • The Suzuki Raider 150 is one of the fastest motorcycles in the underbone category. It uses the 150 cc (9.2 cu in) DOHC four-valve single-cylinder oil-cooled Suzuki FXR150 engine, with a 6 speed transmission. The frame, rear swing arm, rear suspension, seat and front brakes are redesigned from the Suzuki FX125 chassis, making it more aerodynamic.
  • Its popularity in South East Asia, mainly in Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines, is due to the price of this bike—around US$1850 (90,000 to 92,001 pesos or around 16,500,001 rupiah in Indonesia).
  • Also called the Suzuki Satria 150 in Indonesia.

  • Suzuki GS150R
  • The Suzuki GS150R is a 150cc bike from Suzuki Motorcycle India.
  • The Suzuki GS150R was launched on November 2008and marked the entry of Suzuki Motorcycle India into the highly competitive 150 cc segment of the Indian two wheelers market.
  • Suzuki Motorcycle India states that the bike falls in between the two classes of Indian 150 cc motorcycles, namely commuter class and premium class. The GS150R has a sixth gear for cruising on high-ways.

  • Bajaj Pulsar 150
  • The Bajaj Pulsar is a motorcycle brand owned by Bajaj Auto in India. The two wheeler was developed by the product engineering division of Bajaj Auto in association with Tokyo R&D, and later with motorcycle designer Glynn Kerr. Currently there are five variants available, with engine capacities of 135 cc, 150 cc, 180 cc, 200 cc, and 220 cc.
  • With an average monthly sales of around 86,000 units in 2011, Pulsar claimed a 2011 market share of 47% in its segment. By April 2012, more than five million units of Pulsar were sold.
  • The Bike was named after the Nissan Pulsar from 1978 to 2007.

  • Ford F-150
  • The F-Series is a series of full-size pickup trucks from Ford Motor Company which has been sold continuously for over six decades.
  • The most popular variant of the F-Series is the F-150.
  • It was the best-selling vehicle in the United States for 24 years, and the best-selling truck for 37 years. It was also the best selling vehicle in Canada, though this does not include combined sales of GM pickup trucks.
  • In the tenth generation of the F-series, the F-250 and F-350 changed body style in 1998 and joined the Super Duty series.

  • Ford E-150
  • The Ford E-Series, formerly known as the Ford Econoline and Ford Club Wagon, is a line of full-size vans (both cargo and passenger) and truck chassis from the Ford Motor Company.
  • The line was introduced in 1961 as a compact van and its descendants are still produced today.
  • Although based on its own platform, since 1968, the E-Series has used many components from the F-Series line of pickup trucks.
  • The Econoline is manufactured solely at Ford’s Ohio Assembly plant in Avon Lake, Ohio—after the closure of the Lorain, Ohio plant in December 2005 and the consolidation of all production at Avon Lake.
  • As of the 2012 model year, the E-Series and the Transit Connect compact MPV (which debuted for the 2010 model year) are the only vans in the Ford lineup in North America.
  • The Ford E-Series currently holds 79.6% of the full-size van market in the United States and since 1980, it has been the best selling American full-sized van.
  • Ninety-five percent of van sales are to commercial or fleet-end users, about half are cargo vans.
  • In early 2007, the E-Series was listed by Autodata as one of the top 20 best-selling vehicles in the United States, most likely due to fleet sales.

  • Mercedes Benz
  • Renowned German automotive manufacturer Mercedes Benz has produced several models with the150 designation including the Mercedes Benz A-150 and the Mercedes Benz B-150.

  • Cesna C-150
  • The Cessna 150 is a typical example of the small piston-powered aircraft produced by the Cessna Aircraft Company, a general aviation aircraft manufacturing corporation headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, USA.
  • Cessna also produces business jets. The company is a subsidiary of the U.S. conglomerate Textron.

  • Gulfstream G150
  • The Gulfstream G100, formerly known as the Astra SPX, is an Israel Aircraft Industries-manufactured twin-engine business jet, now produced for Gulfstream Aerospace.
  • Astra evolved from the Rockwell Jet Commander aircraft, for which IAI had purchased the manufacturing license in 1968, and the IAI Westwind. The Astra wing design was modified and with a completely new fuselage created the Galaxy (later the Gulfstream G200) business jet during the 1990s.
  • In September 2002 Gulfstream announced the improved G150, based on the G100. This new variant was due in 2005. It has been FAA certified for steep approach.
  • The United States Air Force designation for the G100 is C-38 Courier and it is used by the District of Columbia Air National Guard by the United States Air Force with the 201st Airlift Squadron at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland. The C-38 has replaced the earlier C-21 Learjet. The C-38 differs from the standard Gulfstream G100, featuring US military-grade GPS, Tactical Air Navigation, UHF and VHF secure command radio, and Identification friend or foe system

  • USS Blakeley (DD–150)
  • The second USS Blakeley (DD–150) was a Wickes-class destroyer in the United States Navy, named for Captain Johnston Blakeley.
  • Built in 1918, she saw patrol duty along the East Coast of the United States during the interwar era.
  • Decommissioned for several years, she returned to duty at the outset of World War II. She spent much of the war on convoy patrol duty in the Caribbean.
  • On 25 May 1942, while on patrol, she was struck by a torpedo fired by German submarine U-156, which blew off her forward 60 feet (18 m). Fitted with temporary measures, she steamed to Philadelphia Naval Yard where she was fitted with the forward section of sister ship USS Taylor.
  • She spent much of the rest of the war on convoy patrol duty before being sold for scrap in 1945.

  • USS H-7 (SS-150)
  • USS H-7 (SS-150) was an H-class submarine that served in active duty with the United States Navy from 1918-1922.
  • The Imperial Russian Navy ordered 18 H-class submarines from the Electric Boat Company in 1915. Eleven were delivered, and served as the American Holland class submarines, but shipment of the final six was held up pending the outcome of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and the boats were stored in knockdown condition at Vancouver, British Columbia. All six were purchased by the U.S. Navy on 20 May 1918 and assembled at Puget Sound Navy Yard.
  • H-7 was launched on 17 October 1918 and commissioned on 24 October with Lieutenant Edmund A. Crenshaw in command.
  • The submarine, attached to Submarine Division 6 (SubDiv 6) and later to SubDiv 7, operated out of San Pedro, California, on various battle and training exercises with the other ships of her division. She also patrolled out of San Pedro with interruptions for overhaul at Mare Island.
  • H-7 reached Norfolk on 14 September 1922, having sailed from San Pedro on 25 July, and decommissioned there on 23 October. Her name was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 26 February 1931. She was sold for scrapping on 28 November 1933.

  • USS Neunzer (DE-150)
  • USS Neunzer (DE-150) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort built for the U.S. Navy during World War II. She was named in honor of Machinist Weimar Edmund Neunzer, who was killed in action 2 July 1942 during the Aleutian Islands Campaign and was posthumously awarded the Air Medal.
  • Designed to take the place of fleet destroyers on convoy duty, the destroyer escorts proved their worth in long miles of steaming on escort and antisubmarine duties. Their efforts played a major role in defeating German submarine depredations at a time when the U-boats were threatening to cut Allied supply lines.

  • A-150 – The Batleship that never was.
  • Design A-150, also known as the Super Yamato class,[A 1] was an Imperial Japanese plan for a class of battleships. Begun in 1938–39, the design was mostly complete by 1941. However, so that a demand for other types of warships could be met, all work on Design A-150 was halted and no keels were laid.
  • Authors William H. Garzke and Robert O. Dulin have argued that Design A-150 would have been the “most powerful battleships in history” because of the massive size of their main battery of eight 510 mm (20 in) guns as well as numerous smaller caliber weapons

  • T-150 Tank
  • The T-150 is a Soviet tier 6 heavy tank and was a further development of the KV-1.
  • The vehicle weighed as much as 50 tons. The T-150 underwent trials in the first half of 1941.
  • A prototype fought in the battles for Leningrad, and became a basis for a modification of the KV-1 with reinforced armor.
  • Despite its name, the T-150 is an upgraded KV-1. It has the same chassis and turret, with some notable improvements. Additional armor has been added to the hull, a considerably more powerful engine is available, and perhaps most importantly, it can mount the 107 mm ZiS-6 gun

  • Cadillac Gage Commando
  • The Cadillac Gage Commando is a 4ࡪ amphibious armored car built by the American firm Cadillac Gage.
  • The vehicle has been outfitted for many roles, including armored personnel carrier, ambulance, fire apparatus, anti-tank vehicle, and mortar carrier.
  • They saw service in the Vietnam war where it became known as the Duck, or the V.
  • It was also supplied to many American allies, including Lebanon and Saudi Arabia which used them in the first major ground engagement of the Persian Gulf War.
  • No longer produced, it has been largely replaced by the M1117 Armored Security Vehicle, which was developed as tougher alternative to up-armored Humvees.
  • M150 (PAM)
  • M150 Penetration Augmented Munition (PAM) is a portable explosive device developed for U.S. Army infantry units, especially for Special Operations Forces.
  • It is mainly used to destroy massive concrete structures like bridge piers or bunker walls.
  • Each device has a main high explosive charge and a two-stage, hole-drilling shaped charge.
  • It is regarded as a high-precision blasting device rather than a simple bomb.
  • M150 Rifle Combat Optic
  • Due to the lack of lethality of the M16 and M4 at the increased ranges encountered in Afghanistan but you can’t hit what you can’t see. One of the Army’s answers to this quandary is the M150 Rifle Combat Optic (RCO) which is is designed to increase the probability of a first-round hit at distances up to 600 meters.

  • The Puckle gun
  • The Puckle gun (also known as the Defence gun) was invented in 1718 by James Puckle (1667–1724) a British inventor, lawyer and writer.
  • It is a tripod-mounted, single-barreled flintlock weapon fitted with a multi-shot revolving cylinder. It was intended for shipboard use to prevent boarding.
  • The barrel was 3 feet (0.91 m) long with a bore of 1.25 inches (32 mm). It had a pre-loaded cylinder which held 11 charges and could fire 63 shots in seven minutes—this at a time when the standard soldier’s musket could at best be loaded and fired three times per minute.
  • Puckle demonstrated two versions of the basic design: one, intended for use against Christian enemies, fired conventional round bullets, while the second variant, designed to be used against the Muslim Turks, fired square bullets. The square bullets were considered to be more damaging. They would, according to the patent, convince the Turks of the “benefits of Christian civilization.” The square bullets, however, were discontinued due to their unpredictable flight pattern.
  • The Puckle Gun drew few investors and never achieved mass production or sales to the British armed forces, mostly because British gunsmiths at the time could not easily make the weapon’s many complicated components.
  • One newspaper of the period sarcastically observed, following the business venture’s failure, that the gun has “only wounded those who hold shares therein”.

  • 150 couples
  • In the fourth century BC, the most feared squad of the Theban army was made up of 150 homo-sexual couples. They were called the Sacred Band of Thebes, and were established by Gorgidas in 378-BC.
  • His romantic idea was that lovers would fight more fiercely at each other’s sides than strangers. This notion proved highly successful until the Battle of Chaeronea (338-BC) when the Athenian-Theban army was overrun by Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great.
  • Cities located on Longtitude 150°W: Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska and, Papeete, French Polynesia
  • Cities located on Longtitude 150°E: Rockhampton, Queensland and, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia Magadan, Russia
  • The world record for solving a Rubik’s cube is 7.08 seconds, held by 21-year-old Dutchman Erik Akkersdik, who has solved the puzzle with his feet in just 90 seconds
  • The total number of Power Stars in Super Mario 64 DS for the Nintendo DS
  • M-150 (energy drink), an energy drink from Thailand


Watch the video: More..Removing lead from the ballast keel. 2000 pounds so far!