It is believed that John Penn was born in either 1740 or 1741 on a prosperous farm in Caroline County, Virginia. He received little in the way of a formal education while growing up, but he later compensated for this deficiency through independent study. He was admitted to the bar after three years of legal study, and by 1774 he had a well-established and successful law practice.
It was around 1774 that Penn entered politics. He moved to Granville County, North Carolina in this year, was elected to provincial assembly and then almost immediately after to the Continental Congress. He served on the Congress from 1775 to 1780. He became the leader of the North Carolina delegation in 1777, and was among sixteen signers of the Declaration of Independence who also signed the Articles of Confederation.
Penn was primarily devoted to his own law practice after leaving the Congress, except for the brief period time spent working as State tax receiver for the Confederation. He was only in his late forties when he died in 1788. His grave is in the Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, not far from Greensboro, North Carolina.
John Venn's mother, Martha Sykes, came from Swanland near Hull and died while he was still quite a young boy. His father was the Rev Henry Venn who, at the time of John's birth, was the rector of the parish of Drypool, near Hull. The Rev Henry Venn, himself a fellow of Queen's, was from a family of distinction. His father, John's grandfather, was the Rev John Venn who had been the rector of Clapham in south London. He became the leader of the Clapham Sect, a group of evangelical Christians centred on his church. They successfully campaigned for the abolition of slavery, advocated prison reform and the prevention of cruel sports, and supported missionary work abroad.
It was not only Venn's grandfather who played a prominent role in the evangelical Christian movement, for so did his father the Rev Henry Venn. The Society for Missions in Africa and the East was founded by evangelical clergy of the Church of England in 1799 and in 1812 it was renamed the Church Missionary Society for Africa and the East. The Rev Henry Venn became secretary to this Society in 1841 and in order to carry out his duties moved to Highgate near London. He held this position until his death in 1873 .
As might be expected from his family background, John was very strictly brought up, and there was never any thought other than that he would follow the family tradition into the priesthood. He attended first Sir Roger Cholmley's School in Highgate, then the private Islington Preparatory School.
When he entered Gonville and Caius College Cambridge in October 1853 he had:-
Having been awarded a mathematics scholarship in his second year of study, he graduated as sixth Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos of 1857 , meaning that he was ranked in the sixth place out of those students who were awarded a First Class degree in mathematics. He was elected a Fellow of Gonville and Caius College shortly after graduating, and two years later was ordained a priest. In fact the year after his graduation, in 1858 , he had been ordained a deacon at Ely, then after his ordination as a priest he had served as a curate first at Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, and then for a year as a curate at Mortlake, Surrey.
In 1862 he returned to Cambridge University as a lecturer in Moral Science, studying and teaching logic and probability theory. He had already become interested logic, philosophy and metaphysics, reading the treatises of De Morgan, Boole, John Austin, and John Stuart Mill. Back at Cambridge he now found interests in common with many academics such as Todhunter. He also played a large role in developing the Moral Sciences Tripos over many years. He lectured and examined the Tripos, developing a friendly atmosphere between the lecturers and the students.
Venn extended Boole's mathematical logic and is best known to mathematicians and logicians for his diagrammatic way of representing sets, and their unions and intersections. He considered three discs R , S R, S R , S , and T T T as typical subsets of a set U U U . The intersections of these discs and their complements divide U U U into 8 non-overlapping regions, the unions of which give 256 different Boolean combinations of the original sets R , S , T R, S, T R , S , T .
Venn wrote Logic of Chance in 1866 which Keynes described as:-
In 1867 Venn married Susanna Carnegie Edmonstone, the daughter of the Rev Charles Edmonstone. They had one child, a son John Archibald Venn, who became president of Queen's College, Cambridge, in 1932 , and undertook major collaborative research projects with his father that we give more details on below.
Venn published Symbolic Logic in 1881 and The Principles of Empirical Logic in 1889 . The second of these is rather less original but the first was described by Keynes as:-
The first part contained 76 , 000 names and covered the period up to 1751 . At the time of Venn's death the second part, covering the period from 1751 to 1900 , existed in manuscript and contained a further 60 , 000 names.
Venn had other skills and interests too, including a rare skill in building machines. He used his skill to build a machine for bowling cricket balls which was so good that when the Australian Cricket team visited Cambridge in 1909 , Venn's machine clean bowled one of its top stars four times.
John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg 1746 - 1807
John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg was born in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, the son of Rev. Henry M. Muhlenberg and Mary Weiser, and a brother of Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg. A member of Penn’s Class of 1763, he left the College before graduation and traveled to Europe with his brothers to study at the University of Halle. As a boy and a young man, however, John Peter enjoyed fishing and hunting more than studying and aspired to join the military. His mentors in Halle recommended that he be trained not in the ministry as his father had hoped, but in commerce. Thus John Peter came to be apprenticed to a merchant in Lubeck. After enduring three years with this man, a grocer who exploited John Peter’s labor, young Muhlenberg ran away to enlist in the Royal American Regiment of Foot in the British army. He returned to Philadelphia while a secretary to one of the officers, and received an honorable discharge in 1767.
Finally turning his attention to the study of theology, John Peter Muhlenberg soon won praise as a preacher in Swedish and German Lutheran congregations near Philadelphia. After he was licensed as a Lutheran minister in 1769, he at first assisted his father with congregations in New Jersey. The following year he married Anna Barbara “Hannah” Meyer, daughter of a potter. Next he was called to a church in Woodstock, in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley, settled mostly by Pennsylvania Lutherans. Since Anglicanism was the established state church in Virginia, Muhlenberg traveled to London to receive ordination as an Anglican clergyman. He remained in Woodstock from 1772 to 1775.
During the early years of the Revolution, while Muhlenberg was still in Virginia, he became a follower of patriot Patrick Henry. His contributions to the revolutionary cause included service as the chair of the Committee of Safety in Virginia’s House of Burgesses (1775) and as a member of Virginia’s provincial convention in 1776. From 1776 to 1783, he also served in the Continental Army, as colonel, brigadier-general, and finally as a major-general. As he gathered his recruits and said farewell to his Woodstock congregation, Reverend Muhlenberg is said to have thrown off his clerical garb to reveal his military uniform, proclaiming “There is a time to pray and a time to fight, and that time has now come!” Muhlenberg took part in the fighting at Charleston, Brandywine, Stony Point, and Yorktown, as well as in the winter at Valley Forge.
After the war, Muhlenberg did not feel he could return to being a parson after having been a soldier. In 1784 he surveyed military bounty lands assigned to Virginia veterans, traveling as far as Louisville but then he returned to his native Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. Later in 1784 his German neighbors elected him as Montgomery County’s representative to Pennsylvania’s Supreme Executive Council, the state’s governing body under its first constitution. At the end of his three-year term, Muhlenberg served as vice president of this body (the equivalent of lieutenant-governor). It was in this capacity that he became an ex-officio member of the board of trustees of the University of the State of Pennsylvania (now the University of Pennsylvania).
Shortly thereafter, Muhlenberg, as an anti-Federalist, was elected a Pennsylvania representative to the U.S. Congress, serving from 1789 to 1795 and again from 1799 to 1801. He was considered a key figure in the Democrat-Republican party of Pennsylvania, managing Thomas McKean‘s successful campaign for governor and helping to elect Thomas Jefferson as U.S. president. In 1801 he was elected to the U.S. Senate, but before taking his seat, he resigned to accept the lucrative position of supervisor of U.S. customs in the Pennsylvania District. In 1803 he became collector of customs of the Port of Philadelphia. He remained active as a Lutheran layman until his death in 1807 at his suburban home at Gray’s Ferry on the Schuylkill River.
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Robert Morris was a man of wealth and integrity in Philadelphia during the revolutionary period. though not a scholar or a soldier, he was to play an essential role in the success of the War against England, and in placing the new United States on a firm footing in the world. Morris, almost single handed, saw to the financing of the Revolutionary War, and the establishment of the Bank of the United States after.
Born in England in 1734, he came to the Chesapeake Bay in 1744 and attended school in Philadelphia. Young Robert, who seemed ill suited to formal education and too quick for his teacher in any case, was soon apprenticed to the counting room of Charles Willing at the age of 16. Two years later his employer died and Morris entered a partnership with the gentleman's son. In the succeeding thirty nine years that business flourished, and Robert Morris' wealth and reputation were secured. Being an importer, the business was hit hard by the Stamp Act and the colonial revolt against it. Morris and his partner choose the side of the colonials and Robert engaged in the movements against British rule.
Elected to the Continental Congress in 1775, he participated on many of the committees involved in raising capital and provisions for the Continental Army. Early in 1776, he was given a special commission by congress, with authority to negotiate bills of exchange for, and to solicit money by other means for the operation of the war. One of the most successful such devices were the lotteries. In late 1776, with the Continental Army in a state of severe deprivation because of a shortage of capital and the failure of several of the colonies in paying for the war, Morris loaned $10,000 of his own money to the government. This money provisioned the desperate troops, who went on to win the Battle of Trenton (Washington Crossing). Throughout the war he personally underwrote the operations of privateers, ships that ran the British Blockades at great risk and thus brought needed supplies and capital into the colonies.
In 1781 he devised a plan for a National Bank and submitted it to Congress. It was approved and became The Bank of North America, an institution that brought stability to the colonial economy, facilitated continued finance of the War effort, and would ultimately establish the credit of the United States with the nations of Europe. Morris was immediately appointed Financial Agent (Secretary of Treasury) of the United States, in order to direct the operation of the new bank.
Following the war, he served in the Pennsylvania Legislature. He was also a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, and thereafter an advocate for the new constitution. He was then sent as a Senator for Pennsylvania when that constitution was ratified. In 1789, President George Washington appointed Morris Secretary of the Treasury, but he declined the office and suggested Alexander Hamilton instead. Morris completed his office as Senator and then retired from public service. He never recovered the wealth that he enjoyed before the revolution. What was left of his fortune was soon lost to land speculation in the western part of New York state. He died in 1806, in relative poverty, at the age of 73.
He began his career from his first single “I Need Your Love,” with The Masters for Philadelphia-based Crimson Records. Hall & Oates formed the duo in 1972. They have record 21 albums (to date), which have sold over 80 million units worldwide, making them the most successful duo in pop–rock history.
Caption: John Oates and Aimee Oates (Source: Nashville)
Until 2002’s Phunk Shui, Oates did not release a solo album. Along with Jamie Cullum, Oates took part, in the song “Greatest Mistake” by Handsome Boy Modeling School. That song appears on the 2004 album White People. On August 23, 2008, Oates second solo album, 1000 Miles of Life, was released.
Besides, Oates played with the indie rock band The Bird and the Bee as a surprise guest in March 2010. Margo Rey charted at #24 on Billboard’s Adult Contemporary Tracks with the song “Let the Rain”, which was co-written by John Oates on October 1, 2011. Oates released a new single, “Stand Strong”, which he co-wrote with Teddy Morgan on March 11, 2013.
Oates released Another Good Road in 2015. On March 28, 2017, his memoir, Change of Seasons (9781250082657), was published by St. Martin’s Press. As well as John Oates has employed the effects throughout his musical career and the use of many instruments and endorses several manufacturers and brands.
Dickinson was born in 1732 to a wealthy Quaker family in Maryland. Six years later, the family moved to an estate in Delaware. At age 18, Dickinson followed his father, a judge in Delaware, into the study of law at a Philadelphia law office. In 1753, Dickinson went overseas and spent four years studying in the London court system. While there, he heard leading minds of the day discuss Enlightenment philosophy and individual rights. The experience brought into sharp focus the relationship between history and politics and would influence the rest of Dickinson&aposs life.
Returning to Philadelphia in 1757 to practice law, Dickinson saw his reputation in the legal field grow. Three years later, he made his first foray into politics and was soon elected to both the Delaware legislature and the Pennsylvania assembly (made possible by Dickinson&aposs residency in both regions). In 1764, he challenged Benjamin Franklin on the issue of replacing Pennsylvania’s proprietary charter with a royal charter (Dickinson was against it). Dickinson lost both the debate and his assembly seat in Pennsylvania.
Fetterman was born in 1969 at Reading Hospital in West Reading, Pennsylvania, to Karl and Susan Fetterman.  Fetterman has described his parents as having started out "extremely poor," with both being teenagers at the time of John's birth.  They eventually moved to York, Pennsylvania, where John grew up and his father achieved success as an insurance business owner.  
Fetterman has described his upbringing as middle class and "privileged," saying he "sleepwalked" through his young adulthood, avidly playing four years of football in college and intending to eventually take over as owner of his father's business.  In 1991 Fetterman graduated from Albright College, also his father's alma mater, with a bachelor's degree in finance and was on his way to earning a Master of Business Administration (MBA) from the University of Connecticut.  However, his life took a drastic change after his best friend died in a car accident on his way to drive Fetterman from the gym.  That brush with death gave Fetterman a sense of his own mortality and a need to, within his capacity, help make his world a better place. 
Following his friend's death, Fetterman joined Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, pairing with an eight-year-old boy in New Haven, Connecticut, whose father had died from AIDS, and whose mother was slowly dying from the disease.  During his time as a Big Brother, Fetterman says he became "preoccupied with the concept of the random lottery of birth," and promised the boy's mother he would continue to look out for her son after she was gone.  Afterwards, in 1995, Fetterman joined the recently founded AmeriCorps, and was sent to teach Pittsburgh students pursuing their GEDs.  For two years Fetterman worked in Pittsburgh before attending Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government, graduating in 1999 with a Master of Public Policy. 
Fetterman moved to Braddock in 2001 to serve with AmeriCorps, helping local youth who had left school to earn their GED. After living in Braddock for four years, attracted by what he called the town's "malignant beauty", Fetterman ran against the incumbent mayor in 2005 and won the primary by a single vote.  As the part-time mayor, Fetterman earned $110.22 a month in 2007. His full-time job, directing the Out-Of-School-Youth program, paid around $30,000 annually.  In addition to his work with the program, Fetterman established strong relationships with the 16- to 24-year-old population, helping many in finding employment, and working with them with issues involving family, social agencies, and police. He also founded the 501(c)(3), Braddock Redux. 
Mayor of Braddock (2005–2019) Edit
Following his election, Fetterman initiated youth and art programs, created a community center, and tried to initiate development of the town's mostly ruined buildings and poor economy. With family money, Fetterman purchased the town's First Presbyterian Church before demolition for $50,000, living in the basement for several months.  He later purchased an adjacent warehouse for $2,000, placed two shipping containers on the roof for "extra living space" and moved in.   He has since purchased and renovated many additional houses and offered cheap, even free, rent. Fetterman has attracted many young artists to the town through cheap rent and starting various art exhibitions.  The town's "renaissance" has attracted individuals from cities such as Chicago and Portland, Oregon, drawn by the potential for development and growth.  Other programs include a two-acre organic urban farm, worked by teenagers of the Braddock Youth Project. 
Fetterman's commitment to the community of Braddock is shown with various tattoos. On his left arm are the numbers 15104 - Braddock's ZIP Code, and on the right, the dates of five murders that occurred in the town since he was elected mayor.  As mayor, Fetterman drew international attention for trying to revitalize the economy in Braddock, with an article in The New York Times, an appearance on Comedy Central's The Colbert Report, as well as a Levi's jeans ad.
In order to help fund programs, Fetterman established relationships with local non-profit organizations, Allegheny County's economic development program, and county executive Dan Onorato.  Opposition to Fetterman's activities while mayor came from borough council president Jesse Brown. In March 2009, Brown ordered the borough's code enforcement officer to cite Fetterman for an occupancy permit violation for a building owned by Fetterman's non-profit organization. A judge later dismissed the complaint. 
In 2009, Fetterman was re-elected as mayor after winning the Democratic primary against Jayme Cox by a vote of 294 to 103.   He handily won the Democratic primaries in 2013 and 2017, and was unopposed in the general election.
On November 29, 2010, Fetterman was arrested and immediately released after refusing to leave the property of the U.S. Steel Tower in Pittsburgh. Fetterman was protesting the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center controversial closure of Braddock Hospital, which was met with objections from the community.  
In January 2013, while mayor, Fetterman came under fire for allegedly pointing a shotgun at an unarmed black man in Braddock. After hearing what he and others thought was gunfire, Fetterman got in his truck and followed a jogger, Chris Miyares. Fetterman said he believed, he "did the right thing".  The incident was given renewed attention when Fetterman announced his campaign to replace retiring U.S. Senator Pat Toomey in 2022, with the jogger's ethnicity igniting questions over the possible discriminatory nature of the event.   A Republican candidate for Toomey's seat, writer Sean Parnell, tweeted about the incident, and Parnell's attack was retweeted by Donald Trump, Jr. In response to an inquiry launched by The New York Times, Fetterman defended himself and claimed Miyares was running in the direction of an elementary school, and that he made the decision to approach him with the firearm due to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting occurring the month prior.  Fetterman's campaign also said that when initiated the pursuit, and because the jogger was wearing a black sweatsuit and mask, he did not know the jogger's race or gender at the time of the incident.   Miyares, who is serving prison time for armed assault and kidnap, said what sounded like gunshots were bottle rockets set off by kids, though Fetterman said no fireworks debris had been found.  He added that Fetterman had "done far more good than that one bad act" and, "should not be defined by it," and hoped he would win the senate race.  
Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania (2019—) Edit
On November 14, 2017, Fetterman announced that he would run for the Democratic nomination for Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania, challenging, among others, incumbent Lieutenant Governor Mike Stack.  Fetterman was endorsed by Pittsburgh Mayor Bill Peduto,  Erin McClelland, Democratic nominee for Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district in 2014 and 2016, and former Pennsylvania Governor and Philadelphia Mayor Ed Rendell.  On May 15, Fetterman won the Democratic primary for Lieutenant Governor.  Fetterman was a part of the Democratic ticket along with incumbent Governor Tom Wolf. On November 6, 2018, Wolf and Fetterman defeated the Republican ticket of Scott Wagner and Jeff Bartos in the general election.  
In November 2020, Fetterman received national press coverage for saying Donald Trump was "no different than any other random internet troll"  and that he "can sue a ham sandwich" in response to Trump threatening to file lawsuits in Pennsylvania alleging voter fraud in the 2020 presidential election. 
The 2020 presidential election in Pennsylvania was won by Joe Biden, who finished over 81 thousand votes ahead of Trump.  Trump's claims of voter fraud led to a challenge of the results and Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton filed a suit to overturn the results in Pennsylvania, among other states.  Paxton's case was joined by 18 other Republican Attorneys General from other states.  Supporting that effort, Texas Lieutenant Governor Dan Patrick offered a reward of $1,000,000 to anyone who could prove a case of fraud in the affected states. Fetterman responded by certifying that Pennsylvania had discovered three cases of voter fraud: two men had cast ballots as their dead mothers (both for Trump) and another had voted on behalf of his son as well as himself (also for Trump). Fetterman said that his Texas counterpart needed to pay up, a million for each of these cases. He said he was proud to announce, that Trump "got 100% of the dead mother vote," in Pennsylvania.  Fetterman's lampooning of the alleged voting fraud that Trump supporters claimed had stolen the election for Biden got nationwide publicity.  
On September 11, 2015, Fetterman announced that he would run for the Democratic nomination for the U.S. Senate seat held by Pat Toomey in the 2016 election. His campaign was considered a longshot against two better-known candidates, Katie McGinty and Joe Sestak, the 2010 Democratic nominee for Senate.  Fetterman was endorsed by former Maryland Governor Martin O'Malley,  former Pennsylvania Treasurer Barbara Hafer,  and the PennLive Editorial Board. 
Fetterman's campaign focused on progressive values and building support through grassroots movement, drawing comparisons to Bernie Sanders.  Fetterman, a self-described democratic socialist,  was the only statewide Democratic candidate in Pennsylvania to endorse Sanders.  Though lacking statewide name recognition, having low campaign funds, and polling as low as 4% a week before the primary,  Fetterman was able to garner 20% of the primary vote. Katie McGinty who spent $4,312,688 on the primary and who was endorsed by Barack Obama and many U.S. senators, finished ahead of former congressman and admiral Joe Sestak, who raised $5,064,849, with Fetterman raising $798,981 and finishing third.   After the primary Fetterman campaigned on behalf of McGinty,  although Toomey ultimately defeated her, winning reelection.
In January 2021, Fetterman announced he was launching an exploratory committee for the 2022 U.S. Senate election in Pennsylvania.   On February 4, 2021, Fetterman filed a statement of candidacy with the Federal Election Commission declaring his intention to run for the Senate seat being vacated by retiring Sen. Pat Toomey.   On February 8, 2021, he officially entered the U.S. Senate race.  According to polling data in May 2021, he was the frontrunner for both the Democratic nomination and the general election.
Fetterman's efforts to create youth-oriented programs, revitalize his town, and attract artists and other "creatives" to his community were featured in The New York Times.  An article about him, describing him as "America's coolest mayor", appeared on July 15, 2009, in The Guardian in the United Kingdom. 
Fetterman was the guest on the Colbert Report on February 25, 2009, discussing the economic difficulties his town faced due to a decreasing population, plummeting real estate values, and bankruptcy. He also questioned why funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 could not be used to support projects such as those in Braddock.  He appeared again on August 16, 2010, discussing what he had been doing and the town's partnership with Levi Strauss.
In 2010, Levi Strauss & Company donated money towards Braddock's revitalization and features the town in an advertising campaign and documentary produced by Sundance Channel.  
On May 7, 2012, Fetterman was featured on A Day in the Life where he discusses his responsibilities and desires for Braddock, as well as his personal history and views. 
Fetterman was also a guest on The Nightly Show with Larry Wilmore on January 14, 2016, discussing his support for Bernie Sanders in the Democratic primary.  He appeared again on July 19, 2016, discussing the state of the 2016 election and Donald Trump. 
Fetterman is generally described as a social and fiscal progressive, including by himself,   although he holds moderate views on environmental issues like fracking.  One of his signature issues is prison reform.
Criminal justice reform Edit
Prison reform is one of Fetterman's signature issues, advocating for more rehabilitation schemes as well as clemency for model prisoners. A part of his role as lieutenant governor, he serves as the chair of Pennsylvania's Board of Pardons, which processes clemency requests and forwards them to the governor. Fetterman urged the board to process requests more quickly. 
Fetterman is in favor of abolishing capital punishment in Pennsylvania, stating that he "wholly support[s] Governor Tom Wolf’s moratorium on the death penalty." He has called the death penalty "inhumane, antiquated, expensive, and [a] flawed system of punishment." 
Environmental issues Edit
Fetterman frequently emphasizes the need to balance decarbonization efforts with their effects on fossil fuel-industry jobs. He supports permitting fracking, although he advocates for stricter environmental regulations. 
Fetterman is a proponent of legalizing marijuana, calling the issue a "political bazooka" and that leaving the issue alone is giving an opportunity for another party to gain political support for a pro-marijuana legalization agenda. He argued that if conservative South Dakota voters were willing to approve a ballot measure legalizing recreational marijuana, Pennsylvania should legalize it too.  He also supports expunging criminal convictions related to marijuana. 
Minimum wage Edit
Fetterman supports legislating for a $15 minimum wage. 
Fetterman is a supporter of Medicare for All, citing that healthcare is a "fundamental human need and right". 
Wealth tax Edit
Fetterman has advocated for instituting a wealth tax in the United States. 
Fetterman is married to Gisele Barreto Fetterman (sometimes referred by her maiden surname, Almeida), a Brazilian-American activist, philanthropist, and non-profit executive (founder of the non-profit Freestore 15104 and a co-founder of the non-profits For Good Pgh and 412 Food Rescue). The couple, their three children (Karl, Grace, and August) and dog, Levi live in a converted car dealership.    The family has chosen not to live in State House, the official residence for PA's Lieutenant Governor. 
The Fetterman's family dog Levi is a male rescue dog.  An official Twitter account, @LeviFetterman, has over 15,000 followers.  Levi interacts with many other Pennsylvania brands including the Philadelphia Flyers and the Pittsburgh Pirates, who have both made him their official dog on social media, and the State of Pennsylvania which named him the State Dog.   
In 2018, Fetterman spoke publicly about a substantial weight loss at the time, he had lost nearly 150 pounds (70 kg)  and stands 6 feet 9 inches (2.06 m) tall. 
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John Baxter Taylor, Jr. 1882 - 1908
John Baxter Taylor, Jr., was born on November 3, 1882, in Washington, D.C., the son of Sarah Thomas and John Baxter Taylor. After his family moved to Philadelphia, Taylor attended Central High School, where he was captain of the track team. After high school, while at Brown Preparatory School, young Taylor was a member of a team celebrated for not losing a race and for capturing the one-mile intercollegiate relay championship of the Penn relay games.
Taylor’s association with Penn began when he entered the Wharton School in September 1903. He withdrew from Wharton at the end of his second year and shortly thereafter, in October 1905, enrolled in the School of Veterinary Medicine, graduating from this three-year program in 1908.
During his student years at Penn, Taylor contributed significantly to Penn’s athletic standing. As a member of Penn’s 1903, 1904, 1905, 1907, and 1908 track teams, Taylor (along with Nathaniel John Cartmell and Guy Hastings) made Penn once again the champions on the track and field. Taylor’s stride measured 8 feet 6 inches, the longest of any runner yet known at that time. He was indisputably the best quarter-miler in the college world, establishing the world’s interscholastic record of 49.1 seconds for 440-yards in 1903 and setting a new record of 48.6 seconds for this event four years later. In 1907 he was also the indoor champion for 600 yards.
Taylor was also gaining international fame — and Olympic gold. In the summer of 1904 he visited England and France, winning the majority of his races. When the Olympics were held in England in July 1908, shortly after his graduation from Penn, Taylor had two chances for the gold. His first opportunity came when he participated in the 400-meter race, doing well even though he was ill at the time. Unfortunately, when the race was called because of a disputed foul, bitter controversy ensued between the Americans and British and the Americans boycotted the rerunning of this race. Despite this disappointment, Taylor did bring home the gold as a member of America’s 1600-meter (one mile) relay team he and his teammates fellow Penn grad Nathaniel John Cartmell, W, Philadelphian Melvin Sheppard, and William F. Hamilton set a world record in this race.
Two African Americans had earned medals at the 1904 Olympic games in St. Louis — Joe Stadler (from Cleveland) had won a silver medal in the standing high jump and George Poage (from the University of Wisconsin) had won two bronze medals for the 200-meter and 400-meter hurdles. But Taylor, in 1908, became the first African American to win Olympic gold.
Unfortunately, John Baxter Taylor had only a few months in which to enjoy his successes as a veterinary student and as an Olympian. He died of typhoid pneumonia on December 2, 1908. Thousands of his Penn teammates, alumni, and students gathered for the funeral at the Taylor family home at 3223 Woodland Avenue in West Philadelphia. Well-known trainer Mike Murphy eulogized Taylor as “the nicest man he had ever had to train he never gave any bother, worked hard, and was always on time.”
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John Carpenter, in full John Howard Carpenter, (born January 16, 1948, Carthage, New York, U.S.), American filmmaker who is regarded as a master of the low-budget horror film. He often wrote, produced, and scored the movies he directed, many of which became cult classics.
When Carpenter was five years old, he moved with his family from northern New York to Bowling Green, Kentucky, where his father began teaching music history and theory at Western Kentucky University. Carpenter was a fan of western and horror films and wanted to make his own movies from an early age. After high-school graduation he spent two years (1966–68) at Western Kentucky before transferring to the University of Southern California’s cinema program (now the School of Cinematic Arts). As a student, he cowrote, composed the music for, and edited a short western film, The Resurrection of Billy Broncho (1970), which won an Academy Award for best live-action short subject. He also began his first feature film as a student, but he left school to complete Dark Star (1974), a science-fiction comedy that he wrote with Dan O’Bannon while they were classmates.
Carpenter then wrote, directed, scored, and edited the thriller Assault on Precinct 13 (1976). The movie, often described as a combination of Howard Hawks’s Rio Bravo and George Romero’s Night of the Living Dead, was initially poorly received but quickly became regarded as a high achievement. Carpenter then made the classic horror film Halloween (1978). Starring Jamie Lee Curtis as a terrorized babysitter, the movie relied more on creating tension and fear than on ostentatious gore. It won critical praise and immediate popularity, and it inspired numerous imitations, including sequels that Carpenter neither wrote nor directed.
Carpenter’s next movie, The Fog (1980), a ghost story, was not as well reviewed but still found a large audience. The sci-fi thriller Escape from New York (1981) starred Kurt Russell as a convict tasked with rescuing the U.S. president from a New York City converted into a maximum security prison. It was a box-office hit that became another cult favourite. The Thing (1982), the first of several movies for which he served as director only, was more appreciated later than at the time of its release. Christine (1983), adapted from a Stephen King novel about a possessed car, and the sci-fi movie Starman (1984) were both well received.
Following the failure of the big-budget action film Big Trouble in Little China (1986), Carpenter returned to writing and directing low-budget horror movies, including Prince of Darkness (1987) and They Live (1988). He also helmed the comic Memoirs of an Invisible Man (1992), In the Mouth of Madness (1994), Village of the Damned (1995), Escape from L.A. (1996), Vampires (1998), and The Ward (2010). Although these were not as popular as his earlier movies, some of them developed devoted followers. One of his segments for the anthology TV show Masters of Horror, entitled John Carpenter’s Cigarette Burns (2005), was praised as a return to form.
Carpenter’s film scores were regarded as major contributors to the artistic success of his movies, and he began releasing albums of such music, much of it new, in the 21st century. These included Lost Themes (2015), Lost Themes II (2016), Anthology: Movie Themes 1974–1998 (2017), and Lost Themes III: Alive After Death (2021).