National Air Transport System - History

National Air Transport System - History


number of registered air carriers: 51 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 879 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 80,228,301 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,074,830,881 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: This entry provides the one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating the nationality of civil aircraft. Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention), signed in 1944, requires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bear appropriate nationality marks. The aircraft registration number consists of two parts: a prefix consisting of a one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating nationality and a registration suffix of one to fi . more Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
C (2016)
Airports: This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air. The runway(s) may be paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces) and may include closed or abandoned installations. Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable (overgrown, no facilities, etc.) are not included. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. Airports field listing
1,467 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 4
Airports - with paved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways (concrete or asphalt surfaces) by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m (over 10,000 ft), (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m (8,000 to 10,000 ft), (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m (5,000 to 8,000 ft), (4) 914 to 1,523 m (3,000 to 5,000 ft), and (5) under 914 m (under 3,000 ft). Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all . more Airports - with paved runways field listing
total: 523 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 21 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 147 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 257 (2017)
under 914 m: 79 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces) by length. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listin . more Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
total: 944 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 385 (2013)
under 914 m: 484 (2013)
Heliports: This entry gives the total number of heliports with hard-surface runways, helipads, or landing areas that support routine sustained helicopter operations exclusively and have support facilities including one or more of the following facilities: lighting, fuel, passenger handling, or maintenance. It includes former airports used exclusively for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to day operations and natural clearings that could support helicopter landings and takeoffs. Heliports field listing
26 (2013)
Pipelines: This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products. Pipelines field listing
110000 km gas and liquid petroleum (2017)
Railways: This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge, which is the measure of the distance between the inner sides of the load-bearing rails. The four typical types of gauges are: broad, standard, narrow, and dual. Other gauges are listed under note. Some 60% of the world's railways use the standard gauge of 1.4 m (4.7 ft). Gauges vary by country and sometimes within countries. The choice of gauge during initial construction was mainly in resp . more Railways field listing
total: 77,932 km (2014)
standard gauge: 77,932 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
country comparison to the world: 4
Roadways: This entry gives the total length of the road network and includes the length of the paved and unpaved portions. Roadways field listing
total: 1,042,300 km (2011)
paved: 415,600 km (includes 17,000 km of expressways) (2011)
unpaved: 626,700 km (2011)
country comparison to the world: 7
Waterways: This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water. Waterways field listing
636 km (Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 77
Merchant marine: Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. This entry contains information in four fields - total, ships by type, foreign-owned, and registered in other countries. Total includes the number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT for those ships, and total GRT for those ships. DWT or dead weight tonnage is the total weight of ca . more Merchant marine field listing
total: 639 (2017)
by type: bulk carrier 16, container ship 1, general cargo 88, oil tanker 15, other 519 (2017)
country comparison to the world: 32
Ports and terminals: This entry lists major ports and terminals primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual basis. In some instances, the number of containers handled or ship visits were also considered. Most ports service multiple classes of vessels including bulk carriers (dry and liquid), break bulk cargoes (goods loaded individually in bags, boxes, crates, or drums; sometimes palletized), containers, roll-on/roll-off, and passenger ships. The listing le . more Ports and terminals field listing
major seaport(s): Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Vancouver
oil terminal(s): Lower Lakes terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Montreal (1,447,566), Vancouver (2,929,585) (2016)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Saint John
river and lake port(s): Montreal, Quebec City, Sept-Isles (St. Lawrence)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Port-Cartier (iron ore and grain),
Fraser River Port (Fraser) Hamilton (Lake Ontario)


Transforming the National Air Transportation System

Previously this column has addressed efforts within the federal government to transform our nation’s air transportation system. Policy leaders believe that the business model of traditional airlines has reached its limit and simply is incapable of meeting the need for efficient travel. In the words of several researchers at NASA and the FAA, the hub-and-spoke system is not scalable, which means that adding bigger aircraft to bigger hub airports does not solve the problems of delays. What
is needed, they argue, is transformation. To accommodate our nation’s increasing demand for mobility, we must change the way air transportation operates.

While government policymakers have yet to say so, a transformed air transportation system will encompass many of the features and benefits currently available to users of business aviation. What will change is the availability of travel options to a much larger segment of the nation’s population.

Airlines provide rather restrictive service, all things considered. Nearly three-quarters of airline passengers enplane or deplane at about 30 hub airports. About 90 percent of passenger activity occurs at fewer than 60 airports. Meanwhile, several thousand airports with runways suitable for business jets and turboprops are underutilized.

Business aviation is able to counter the inefficiencies of the legacy airlines and their concentration on hub airports by providing access to 10 times the number of airports and 100 times the number of locations. A recent survey of NBAA members indicates that the majority of their flights are to airports with relatively low activity levels. Only about one out of five business aviation operators flies to large hubs, and most use airports that lack FAR Part 139 certification, which is a requirement for scheduled airline service.

Adding to the lack of convenient airline service is a confusing maze of airline fares. It appears that there are almost as many ticket prices as there are seats on the aircraft. The business traveler who lacked the luxury of an advanced booking may pay considerably more than the tourist sitting in the adjacent seat. While low-cost airlines have emerged to serve several point-to-point routes, often bypassing the largest hubs, the service tends to be focused on high-volume markets. Accommodations can be spartan, and travelers are often reluctant to work on business matters for fear that a nearby passenger will see or overhear proprietary material. Increasingly, business travelers consider airline travel something to be avoided if alternatives are available and tolerated if they are not.

The answer, some say, is transforming the nation’s aviation system to provide more point-to-point service between the nation’s 5,000 or so public-use airports, thereby bypassing hubs and eliminating the congestion and delays that accompany busy airports. (Isn’t this precisely what business aviation does?)

Since demand between most location pairs may be low, some researchers as well as a few seasoned entrepreneurs believe that a strong but latent demand exists
for a small aircraft transportation system (SATS), possibly using the emerging breed of very light jets. Small jets would stay away from hubs, so the theory goes, by providing service close to the traveler’s destination. (Again, sounds a lot like business aviation.)

There is general agreement that without more places to land, delays will continue to mount. The cost and time required to build big airports or add a new runway to an existing airport are huge, lending credence to the concept of a highly distributed system employing small aircraft that can operate to and from existing small airports.

Others suggest that we need to restructure the ATC system to accommodate more aircraft within the airspace, particularly if swarms of VLJs populate the sky. Some point out that changing the ATC infrastructure is analogous to changing the tires on a speeding car. That comparison may be extreme, but any restructuring of air traffic management and control is a complicated, time-consuming process.

While there may be agreement that some things need to change, particularly as airline delays grow, answers to the question of what to do are neither obvious nor universally supported. It is clear, however, that change is inevitable.

Not all changes will be in commercial aviation. As more companies and entrepreneurs realize that good alternatives to scheduled airlines are available, we can expect growth in the use of general aviation aircraft for business transportation. Many of the procedures that NASA and the FAA are researching for possible application to a small aircraft transportation system, such as higher acceptance rates for IFR operations at nontower airports, lower landing minimums at typical general aviation airports and reduced pilot workload, have direct application to all aspects of general aviation, particularly business transportation.

The future will indeed be interesting as well as challenging for the business aviation community. Facilitating a new dimension in air travel, by encouraging higher utilization of general aviation airports and greater application of smaller aircraft for meaningful transportation, is a far more productive solution to congestion than mandating fewer landings at hub airports or placing artificial restrictions on airspace access.

It is essential that the policy leaders who are shaping tomorrow’s transformed aviation system appreciate that business aviation provides a model for the efficient use of aircraft and our existing airport infrastructure.


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Eastern Air Transport System Atlantic City by Air

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Poster, Advertising, Commercial Aviation, EASTERN AIR TRANSPORT SYSTEM ATLANTIC CITY BY AIR

ATLANTIC CITY by AIR. Multicolor commercial aviation print. Airplane (probably Curtiss Condor T-32) flies over ocean red and blue ink on paperboard with paperboard stand attached to verso. Round-trip fare of $11.00 is between New York City and Atlantic City, effective, July 1, 1933. Relief or Letterpress.

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Poster, Advertising, Commercial Aviation, EASTERN AIR TRANSPORT SYSTEM ATLANTIC CITY BY AIR

ATLANTIC CITY by AIR. Multicolor commercial aviation print. Airplane (probably Curtiss Condor T-32) flies over ocean red and blue ink on paperboard with paperboard stand attached to verso. Round-trip fare of $11.00 is between New York City and Atlantic City, effective, July 1, 1933. Relief or Letterpress.

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Poster, Advertising, Commercial Aviation, EASTERN AIR TRANSPORT SYSTEM ATLANTIC CITY BY AIR

ATLANTIC CITY by AIR. Multicolor commercial aviation print. Airplane (probably Curtiss Condor T-32) flies over ocean red and blue ink on paperboard with paperboard stand attached to verso. Round-trip fare of $11.00 is between New York City and Atlantic City, effective, July 1, 1933. Relief or Letterpress.

Fly Now: The National Air and Space Museum Poster Collection

Throughout their history, posters have been a significant means of mass communication, often with striking visual effect. Wendy Wick Reaves, the Smithsonian Portrait Gallery Curator of Prints and Drawings, comments that "sometimes a pictorial poster is a decorative masterpiece-something I can't walk by without a jolt of aesthetic pleasure. Another might strike me as extremely clever advertising … But collectively, these 'pictures of persuasion,' as we might call them, offer a wealth of art, history, design, and popular culture for us to understand. The poster is a familiar part of our world, and we intuitively understand its role as propaganda, promotion, announcement, or advertisement."

Reaves' observations are especially relevant for the impressive array of aviation posters in the National Air and Space Museum's 1300+ artifact collection. Quite possibly the largest publicly-held collection of its kind in the United States, the National Air and Space Museum's posters focus primarily on advertising for aviation-related products and activities. Among other areas, the collection includes 19th-century ballooning exhibition posters, early 20th-century airplane exhibition and meet posters, and twentieth-century airline advertisements.

The posters in the collection represent printing technologies that include original lithography, silkscreen, photolithography, and computer-generated imagery. The collection is significant both for its aesthetic value and because it is a unique representation of the cultural, commercial and military history of aviation. The collection represents an intense interest in flight, both public and private, during a significant period of its technological and social development.

See more items in

National Air and Space Museum Collection

Inventory Number

Physical Description

ATLANTIC CITY by AIR. Multicolor commercial aviation print. Airplane (probably Curtiss Condor T-32) flies over ocean red and blue ink on paperboard with paperboard stand attached to verso. Round-trip fare of $11.00 is between New York City and Atlantic City, effective, July 1, 1933. Relief or Letterpress.


A Short History Of Making Flying Safer

Lawrence Sperry’s autopilot was the first avionics system, in the sense of an electrical or electronic device designed for aircraft use. In a spectacular demonstration in Paris in June 1914, Sperry flew his Curtiss C.2 seaplane over the Seine, with his hands off the controls and his passenger standing on the wing. When the autopilot was engaged, the manual controls were locked and the pilot could control the aircraft through a separate pitch-roll stick. Powered by a small generator on the engine and using servo-motors to move the flight control cables, the autopilot had enough inertia in its gyros to run for 30 min. after a complete power failure.

On a bluff near St George, Utah, this concrete arrow remains from the Commerce Department’s Transcontinental Airway System, a chain of beacons built in 1923 to guide airmail pilots. Clouds and fog rendered them useless. One mail pilot was forced by bad weather to parachute out of two airplanes in two months in the fall of 1926 (after one jump in training and another as a test pilot). Undeterred by this, the pilot—a Minnesota politician’s kid named Charles Lindbergh—continued his flying career with some success.

With all due respect to gyrocopters , they’re not associated today with ultra-safe flight operations. But the first goal of Juan de la Cierva , the Spanish inventor of this type of aircraft (which he called the autogiro ), was to eliminate the danger of stall-and-spin accidents, which were frequent and often fatal. This early C.6 had separate ailerons, but Cierva’s later designs featured full control via the rotor and were an important step toward the single-rotor helicopter.

With support from the Guggenheim foundation, the Sperry and Kollsman companies and others, Jimmy Doolittle—the leading engineer/test pilot of his day—made the first “blind” flight, from takeoff to landing, at Mitchel Field on Long Island in September 1929. The rear cockpit of the Consolidated NY-2 trainer was fitted with specially developed instruments—including an artificial horizon, radio beacons and an altimeter updated by radio—and a fabric hood (folded down in the photo). A safety pilot occupied the front seat.

Aircraft should “land slowly and not burn up,” in the words of C.G. Grey, influential editor of The Aeroplane. Britain’s stately Handley Page HP.42 landed slowly, but it did everything else slowly as well, blazing through the sky at 87 kt. on a good day. In concession to modernity, it did mark Imperial Airways’ abandonment of its view that enclosed cockpits were a sign of weak character, and most of the structure was metal, but it entered service only two years before the monoplane, retractable-landing-gear Boeing 247.

Knute Rockne, celebrity coach of the University of Notre Dame’s football team, died along with seven others when the wooden wing of a TWA Fokker F.10 failed over Kansas in March 1931. The accident discredited wooden-winged aircraft, was a spur to development and adoption of the all-metal Boeing 247 and Douglas DC-2, and led to a more formal system of accident investigations.

The suggestion that the function of a twin-engine airplane’s second engine was to get you to the scene of the accident was not merely unkind in the early days of aviation. It was often literally correct. That was why a Sept. 4, 1933, test flight of the first and only Douglas DC-1, from Winslow, Arizona, to Albuquerque, New Mexico, was important. An engine was shut down during the takeoff run from Winslow, 4,850 ft. above sea level, but the DC-1 was still able to climb to 8,000 ft., clear of terrain, and complete its flight. Aerodynamic efficiency, more powerful engines and variable-pitch propellers made it possible.

Radio navigation aids—immune to most weather and with a far greater range than lights—were first used in the 1930s. This is one of a chain of Aeradio stations installed in Australia to guide mail and transport pilots. The lefthand tower supported a light beacon, and the other carries a transmitter for a Lorenz beam, modified from the German-developed blind-landing equipment that is a direct ancestor of today’s instrument landing systems. The station included two generators and operator stations.

Seaplanes have built-in nostalgia. Imperial Airways’ Short C-Class flying boats were advanced, high-performance aircraft for their day, cruising twice as fast as the HP.42 and speeding services to Australia and South Africa—this photo was taken at Durban, South Africa. But the idea that water was a better place than a runway to land and take off at high speeds was not very sound—waves and floating objects were hazards. Three of Imperial’s C-Class boats were lost in the first 10 months of operations, and World War II saw concrete runways built worldwide.

Overwater navigation before World War II relied on the tools that mariners had developed over many centuries—clock, compass and sextant—but air navigators had to work with a less stable platform, they could get lost several times faster and fuel usage was a critical factor. If the destination was an island rather than a coastline, errors could be fatal—the most likely explanation for the disappearance of Amelia Earhart in 1937. The U.S.-developed Loran radio-aid system was introduced during World War II, and the improved Loran-C survived until the Global Positioning System made it redundant.

Another designer who set out to achieve a radical improvement in safety was Vincent Burnelli. He advocated a configuration that blended conventional outer wings with a deep, constant-chord lifting-body center-section and was expected to be more crashworthy than wing-and-body designs. Burnelli’s company and its licensees built a number of prototype and one-off aircraft—this one, Britain’s Cunliffe-Owen OA-1, ended its days with (Free) French forces in World War II Egypt—but the concept was never widely accepted.

All too typical of early long-range operations was the disappearance of two identical Avro Tudor IV airliners operated by British South American Airways almost exactly one year apart (in January 1948 and January 1949), one on a flight to Bermuda and one after departing from the airport at Kingston, Jamaica. No trace of either aircraft was ever found, fueling the legend of the “Bermuda Triangle,” but the Tudor was a collection of Lincoln bomber parts, with a reputation for unreliable systems. It had been designed with a pressurized cabin when the entire U.K. industry had little experience of such technology and Avro had none. Air safety was subsequently improved by relegating the Tudor to freight operations.

This gallery was originally published digitally in Aviation Week & Space Technology on January 15, 2016.

Flying in its early era was unabashedly dangerous. Reliable statistics are hard to come by, but accident rates were certainly orders of magnitude higher than even the early jet age. A related problem was that it was hard to identify the best ways to make flying safer, and, as a result, the pioneer years of aviation included both successful and misguided efforts to make the number of safe landings approximate to the number of takeoffs. Here are some notable examples on both sides of that record.


TRANSCONTINENTAL AIR TRANSPORT.

In 1929 Waynoka, Oklahoma, became part of an innovative concept in coast-to-coast transportation. The founders of Transcontinental Air Transport (TAT), incorporated in May 1928, were businessmen led by Clement M. Keys, president of Curtiss Aeroplane and Motors Company, and including Charles A. Lindbergh. They envisioned a combined air-and-rail service to take passengers across the country from New York to Los Angeles in forty-eight hours Lindbergh laid out the route, making Waynoka a plane-train stop between Wichita, Kansas, and Clovis, New Mexico. One reason for the town's selection was the presence of a new Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway railroad yard, a $600,000 improvement project that created the largest railroad yard in Oklahoma at that time. TAT broke ground for the Waynoka airport on March 3, 1929.

Crossing America, travelers would sleep in Pullman cars on trains by night and fly on TAT's Ford Tri-Motor planes by day. On July 7, 1929, the inaugural Pennsylvania Railroad train left New York City with passengers bound for Columbus, Ohio. There on July 8 they transferred to TAT. They made several more stops before arriving at Waynoka where they boarded the Santa Fe train for Clovis. From Clovis on July 9 they flew on TAT into Los Angeles.

TAT brought national attention to Waynoka. Influential people such as Amelia Earhart, Charles and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, Will Rogers, William G. McAdoo (the former treasury secretary Pres. Woodrow Wilson), and Ernie Pyle (a famous journalist later gained renown during World War II) all visited the town. Both Amelia Earhart and Charles Lindbergh held positions within the company.

Waynoka's airport received widespread notice for a number of reasons. Upon completion in June 1929 at a cost of almost $300,000, it contained the third-largest hanger in the United States (after Chicago and Los Angeles) and the most brilliantly lighted landing field in the world. TAT christened one of its airplanes on the line the City of Waynoka, one of seven cities so honored. The company installed the latest technology, including two-way communication between airplanes and ground stations, and at that time was the only air service to employ such methods.

TAT's influence on Waynoka existed for only a brief, twenty-one month period. In the first eighteen months of operation the company lost $2.7 million. In October 1930 the air service merged with Western Air Express to become Transcontinental and Western Airlines (TWA), which announced a new route from Kansas City, Kansas, by way of Tulsa, Oklahoma. This ended operations at Waynoka.

Bibliography

C. M. Keys, "What the Rail-Air Business Means," Pennsylvania Railroad Information (January 1929).

Anne Morrow Lindbergh, Hour of Gold, Hour of Lead: Diaries and Letters of Anne Morrow Lindbergh, 1929–1932 (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973).

Helen McCabe, Interview by Julie A. Bennett, 1 October 2004, Waynoka, Oklahoma.

Sandie Olson, "Waynoka's Aviation History: Transcontinental Air Transport," Oklahoma Aviator 20 (February 2002).

Donovan Reichenberger, "Wings Over Waynoka," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 65 (Summer 1987).

Transcontinental Air Transport, Inc., T.A.T. Plane Talk (New York: N.p., 1929).

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Citation

The following (as per The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition) is the preferred citation for articles:
Julie A. Bennett-Jones, &ldquoTranscontinental Air Transport,&rdquo The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=TR005.

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Interstate Air Pollution Transport

On September 5, 2019, EPA announced its intent to make findings that certain states have failed to submit interstate transport state implementation plans for the 2015 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The EPA intends to issue these findings by November 22, 2019.

The total pollution in any area forms from the combination of local and upwind sources. Air transport refers to pollution from upwind emission sources that impact air quality in a given location downwind. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) can each undergo chemical reactions in the atmosphere to form fine particle (soot) pollution. Similarly, NOX emissions can react in the atmosphere to create ground-level ozone (smog) pollution. These pollutants can travel great distances affecting air quality and public health regionally. The transport of these pollutants across state borders, referred to as interstate air pollution transport, makes it difficult for downwind states to meet health-based air quality standards for PM2.5 and ozone.

The "Good Neighbor" Provision

The Clean Air Act's "good neighbor" provision requires EPA and states to address interstate transport of air pollution that affects downwind states' ability to attain and maintain National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Specifically, Clean Air Act section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I) requires each state in its State Implementation Plan (SIP) to prohibit emissions that will significantly contribute to nonattainment of a NAAQS, or interfere with maintenance of a NAAQS, in a downwind state. The Act requires EPA to backstop state actions by promulgating Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) in the event that a state fails to submit or EPA disapproves good neighbor SIPs.


National Air Transport System - History


The National Air & Space Museum Archives supports the mission of the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) by acquiring and preserving for public and cultural use documentary materials of air and space flight. These documentary materials include a wide range of visual and textual materials, many emphasizing the technical aspects of air and space craft and their propulsion system. The Archives organizes and describes these materials and assists the public and museum staff in using these items in their research. The archival collection contains approximately 10,000 cubic feet of material including an estimated two million photographs, 700,000 feet of motion picture film, and two million technical drawings.

The following is a list of major collections from NASM Archives cataloged in Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS):

1903 Wright Flyer Drawings, 1928-1986
National Air and Space Museum U.S
9.30 cubic feet (3 48"x36"x3" drawers)

1st Aero Squadron Material [Pendleton], 1917-1919
Pendleton, Littleton Flippo
0.23 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)
0.21 linear feet

2003 National Air Tour Race Collection 2003
The Aviation Foundation of America, Inc
1.04 cubic feet (4 boxes)

7th Photo Group History Photograph Album 1943-1945
7th Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Grounp
.21 cubic feet (1 flat box)

A. Francis Arcier Collection, 1890-1969
Arcier, A. Francis, 1890-1969
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes) (1 16x20x1 flatbox)
2.08 linear feet

A. Leo Stevens Glass Plate Photography Collection, 1900-1915
Stevens, Albert Leo, 1873-1944
0.52 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box) (1 shoebox) (1 small shoebox)
0.89 linear feet

A. Roy Knabenshue Collection, [ca. 1890s-1960s]
Knabenshue, A. Roy, 1876-1960 Augustus Roy
3.60 cubic feet (8 legal document boxes)
3.36 linear feet

Admiral Alfred M. Pride Papers, [ca. 1910s-1970s]
Pride, Alfred Melville, 1897-1988
6.54 cubic feet (6 records center boxes)

Admiral Maxwell F. Leslie Collection, 1922-1977
Leslie, Maxwell Franklin, 1902-1984
3.27 cubic feet (3 records center boxes) (1 20x24x3 flatbox)

Aerojet-General M-1 Engine Reports, 1962-1968
Aerojet-General Corporation
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)
2.08 linear feet

Aeromarine Photograph Collection, 1914-1924 (bulk 1916-1922)
Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co
2.25 cubic feet (5 legal document boxes)
2.10 linear feet

Air Mail Collection [Culver], 1918
Culver, H. Paul, 1893-1964
0.23 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)

Airborne Radar Technical Archives, 1941-1974
Szewczyk, Zdzislaw I
25.42 cubic feet (25 legal document boxes) (13 records center boxes) (3 flatboxes)
24.02 linear feet

Aircraft Recognition Training Materials, 1942-1943
United States. Army Air Service
0.87 cubic feet (1 20x24x3 flatbox)
2.04 linear feet

Albert Willibarld Seypelt Collection, 1892-1941
Seypelt, Albert Willibald, -1966
0.90 cubic feet (2 legal document boxes)

Alfred M. Mayo Publications, 1958-1965
Mayo, Alred Miskin, 1917
0.55 cubic feet (1 records center box)

Alfred W. Lawson Collection, [ca. 1920s-1940s]
Lawson, Alfred W. Alfred William, 1869-1954
1.33 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (1 flatbox) (1 oversized folder)

Alva R. DeGarmo Collection, 1916-1986
DeGarmo, Alva R., 1899-1988
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)
1.04 linear feet

American Astronautical Society Records, 1953-1977
American Astronautical Society
13.08 cubic feet (12 records center boxes)
12.48 linear feet

Andrew G. Haley Papers, 1939-1967
Haley, Andrew Gallagher, 1944-1966
46.87 cubic feet (43 records center boxes)

Apollo 11 Stamp Collection [Cooke]
Cooke, Hereward Lester
3.44 cubic feet (7 legal document boxes, 1 flatbox)

Apollo Milton Olin (A. M. O.) Smith Papers, 1935-1981
Smith, Apollo Milton Olin A. M. O., 1911-1997
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)

Apollo Mission Reports [Fleming], 1961-1962
Fleming, William A., 1921
0.45 cubic feet (1 legal document box)

Apollo Mission Reports [NASA], 1965-1968
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
1.58 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box) (3 legal document boxes)

Apollo Project Rescue Operations Collection, 1968-1971
Lockheed Missiles and Space Company
0.90 cubic feet (2 legal document boxes)

Apollo Space Suit Manuals, 1969-1973
0.82 cubic feet (1 records center box)
0.78 linear feet

Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection, 1910-1988
Brooks, Arthur Raymond, 1895-1991
9.81 cubic feet (9 records center boxes)

Arthur T. Atherholt Collection, 1906-1913
Atherholt, Arthur T., 1867-1915
0.45 cubic feet (1 legal document box)

Autogiro Company of America v. United States Collection, 1958-1962
10.90 cubic feet (10 records center boxes) (2 11x14x25 transfiles)
10.40 linear feet

Aviation Technical Manuals Collection, 1912-1987 (bulk 1930-1945)
National Air and Space Museum. Archives Division
1224.07 cubic feet (1123 records center boxes)

Babylon 5 Collection 1995-1999
Enter creator, if applicable Enter birth-death
Enter vol amt cubic feet (1 box)

Beechcraft Model 17 Photographs, 1930-1940
Beech Aircraft Corp
1.54 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (1 records center box)
1.46 linear feet

Bellcomm, Inc. Technical Reports Library, 1947-1980 (bulk 1960-1973)
Bellcomm, Inc
81.71 cubic feet (222 letter document boxes) (1 slim letter document box) (4 flatboxes)

Bendix Air Races Collection, 1931-1982
5.45 cubic feet (5 records center boxes) (1 16x20x3 flatbox) (1 12x16x3 flatbox)
5.20 linear feet

Benjamin Ruhe Collection [no year]
Ruhe, Benjamin, 1928
15.26 cubic feet (14 records center boxes)

Betty Skelton Collection
Skelton, Betty, 1926
4.70 cubic feet (5 legal document boxes, 3 flatboxes)

Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, [ca. 1920s-1980s]
National Air and Space Museum U.S
3.72 cubic feet (3 records center boxes) (1 legal document box)

Blanche Stuart Scott Collection, 1935-1969
Scott, Blanche Stuart, 1889-1970
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)
1.04 linear feet

Boeing Commercial Aircraft Marketing Documentation, 1970-1985
Boeing Company
6.75 cubic feet (15 legal document boxes) (1 flatbox)
6.30 linear feet

Captain Walter J. Seaborn World War I Collection 1917-1919
Seaborn, Walter J. Captain 1892
.63 cubic feet (1 legal document box, 1 slim letter document box)

Carl T. Batts Collection, 1953-1969
Batts, Carl T., 1892-1969
1.35 cubic feet (3 legal document boxes)
1.26 linear feet

Caterpillar Club Collection, 1922-1940
Caterpillar Club
1.35 cubic feet (3 legal document boxes)

Charles Arens Scrapbooks, 1911-1960
Arens, Charles A., 1895-1967
1.00 cubic feet (1 oversize box)

Charles E. Taylor Collection, 1928-1966 (bulk 1928-1956)
Taylor, Charles Edward, 1868-1956
0.23 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)

Charles F. Blair, Jr., Collection, [ca. 1950s]
Blair, Charles F., Jr. 1909-1978
1.74 cubic feet (1 shoebox) (1 23.5x19x4 flatbox) (1 16x13.5x3 flatbox)

Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers, 1917-1977
Stanton, Charles Ingram, 1893-1986
3.91 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box) (4 legal document boxes) (3 flatboxes)

Charles M. Manly Papers, 1895-1925 (bulk 1903-1915)
Manly, Charles Matthews, 1876-1927
0.90 cubic feet (2 legal document boxes)

Charles Stuart Sheldon II Papers, 1934-1980 (bulk 1958-1972)
Sheldon, Charles Stuart, II, 1917-1981
13.08 cubic feet (12 records center boxes)

Charles W. Chillson Collection, 1950-1956
Chillson, Charles W., 1910
3.27 cubic feet (3 records center boxes)
3.12 linear feet

Charles Y. Johnson Collection, 1947-1977
Johnson, Charles Yothers, 1920
5.15 cubic feet (7 legal document boxes) (3 flatboxes)

Clarence H. Arveson Aviation Scrapbook, 1920-1922
Arveson, Clarence H., 1901-1978
0.23 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)

Claudy Glass Plate Negative Collection, 1906-1910
Claudy, C. H. Carl Harry, 1879-1957
1.95 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (2 flatboxes) (13 clamshells)

Clement Melville Keys Papers, 1918-1951 (bulk 1928-1931)
Keys, Clement Melville, 1876-1952
12.15 cubic feet (27 legal document boxes)
11.34 linear feet

Colonel Alexis B. McMullen Collection, 1915-1983
McMullen, Alexis B
28.15 cubic feet (25 records center boxes) (2 legal document boxes) (1 flatbox)

Colonel W. Sumpter Smith Collection, 1918-1939
Smith, Walter Sumpter, 1897-1943
4.76 cubic feet (4 records center boxes) (1 flatbox)

Congressional Space Science Hearings Transcripts, 1959-1968
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Astronautics
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)
1.04 linear feet

Continental, Inc Archives, 1941-1955
Continental, Inc
4.50 cubic feet (10 legal document boxes) (6 shoeboxes)
4.20 linear feet

Crocker Snow Collection, [ca. 1920s-1990s]
Snow, Crocker
41.40 cubic feet (37 records center boxes) (1 flatbox)

Cunningham-Hall Collection, 1917-1940 (bulk 1928-1930)
Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corp
2.90 cubic feet (2 legal document boxes) (1 drawer)

Curtiss NC-4 Design, Construction, and Testing Reports, 1918-1969 (bulk 1919)
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)
2.08 linear feet

Curtiss-Wright Corporation Records, 1925-1949
Curtiss-Wright Corporation
143.24 cubic feet (110 legal document boxes) (86 records center boxes) (18 4x5x3 flatboxes) (1 20x24x3 flatbox)
135.64 linear feet

Demonstration Advance Avionics System (DAAS) Collection, 1981-1982
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Ames Research Center
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)
1.04 linear feet

Dr. Arthur Nutt Papers, 1915-1945
Nutt, Arthur, 1895-1983
4.36 cubic feet (4 records center boxes)

Dr. Hidegard Korf Kallmann-Bilj Papers, 1949-1968
Kallmann-Bijl, Hildegard Korf, Dr., 1908-1968
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes, 1 flatbox)
2.08 linear feet

E. D. "Hud" Weeks Collection, 1907-1981
Weeks, E. D. "Hud", Evert D
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)
1.04 linear feet

Early Aeronautical New clippings (Alexander Graham Bell) Collection 1906-1911
Bell, Alexander Graham, 1847-1922
18.53 cubic feet (17 records center boxes) (1 11x17x3 flatbox)

Early Birds of Aviation, Inc. Collection, 1928-[ca. 1980s]
Early Birds of Aviation Organization
16.20 cubic feet (36 legal document boxes) (7 flatboxes) (2 shoeboxes)
15.12 linear feet

Edgar S. Gorrell Collection (1936-1940)
Gorrell, Edgar S. Edgar Staley, 1891-1945
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes, 1 flatbox)

Elmo Neale Pickerill Papers, 1907-1968
Pickerill, Elmo Neale, 1885-1968
2.55 cubic feet (4 legal document boxes) (3 shoeboxes)

Elton Ross Silliman Papers, 1930-1982
Silliman, Elton Ross, 1902
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)

Emile and Henry A. Berliner Collection, 1892-1925
Berliner, Emile, 1851-1929
0.95 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (2 flatboxes)
0.42 linear feet

Enter collection title Enter dates
Enter creator, if applicable Enter birth-death
Enter vol amt cubic feet (1 box)

Eric Preece Engine Collection, 1933-1944
Preece, Eric
3.27 cubic feet (3 records center boxes) (1 flatbox)

Ernest Jones Aeronautical Collection, 1906-1937
Jones, Ernest La Rue, 1883-1955
16.88 cubic feet (37 legal document boxes) (1 slim legal document box) (1 flatbox)
15.75 linear feet

Evan J. Parker Scrapbook, 1908-1966
Parker, Evan Jenkins, 1885-1966
0.15 cubic feet (1 flatbox)

Exxon Air World Collection, 1957-1991
Esso Standard Oil Company
11.99 cubic feet (11 records center boxes)

Fairchild Industries, Inc. Collection, 1919-1980
Fairchild Aircraft Corp
277.95 cubic feet (255 records center boxes)

Fairchild KS-25 High Acuity Camera System Collection, 1956-1967
Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)

Floyd E. Barlow Scrapbook, 1912-1960
Barlow, Floyd E., 1889-1977
0.29 cubic feet (1 16x20x1 flatbox)

Fokker Aircraft, USA, Inc. Collection, 1970-1996
Fokker B.V
23.00 cubic feet (5 records center boxes) (39 legal document boxes)

Francis Gary Powers Collection, [ca. 1950s-1970s]
Powers, Francis Gary, 1929-1977
1.45 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (1 flatbox)

Frank Purdy Lahm Collection, 1899-1974
Lahm, Frank Purdy, 1877-1963
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box) (1 flatbox)
1.04 linear feet

Frederick Clark Durant Collection, [ca. 1953-1963]
Durant, Frederick C., 1916
29.43 cubic feet (27 records center boxes)

G. Harry Stine Collection, [ca. 1950s-1970s]
Stine, G. Harry George Harry, 1928-1997
12.49 cubic feet (11 records center boxes) (1 flatbox)

George A. Page Jr. Collection, 1921-1977
Page, George Augustus, Jr., 1892-1983
0.45 cubic feet (1 legal document box)

George B. King Scrapbook, 1919-1939
King, George B., 1905-1939
0.51 cubic feet (1 flatbox) (1 folder)

George Caldwell Furrow Papers, 1916-1968 (bulk 1916-1928)
Furrow, George Caldwell, 1888
2.09 cubic feet (1 records center box) (1 flatbox)

George Henry Mills Collection, [ca. 1920s-1950s] (bulk [ca. 1930s-1940s])
Mills, George H., 1895-1975
13.39 cubic feet (24 legal document boxes) (7 flatboxes)
14.95 linear feet

George M. Keightley Collection
Keightley, George M., 1889-1967
.10 cubic feet (1 folder)

George Paul Sutton Collection, 1945-1958
Sutton, George Paul, 1920
0.45 cubic feet (1 legal document box)

George W. Beatty Collection, 1910-1940 (bulk 1910-1912)
Beatty, George W., -1955
0.68 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (1 20x24x3 flatbox) (1 slim legal document box)
0.63 linear feet

Georges Naudet Collection, [ca 1600s-1930s]
Naudet, Georges, 1900-1983
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box) (1 flatbox)

Gerard Post Herrick Papers, 1909-1963 (bulk 1909-1921, 1930-1953)
Herrick, Gerard Post, 1873-1955
17.68 cubic feet (2 records center boxes) (5 drawers)

Glen A. Gilbert Collection, 1938-1973
Gilbert, Glen Alexander, 1913-1982
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)
1.04 linear feet

Guiseppe M. Bellanca Collection, 1919-1959
Bellanca, Giuseppe M., 1886-1960
109 cubic feet (100 records center boxes) (4 flatboxes) (13 drawers)
104 linear feet

Gwinn Aircar Drawings, 1936-1937
Gwinn Aircar Co
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)

H. Wallace Peters World War I Collection, 1916-1956
Peters, Heber Wallace
0.12 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)

Hans von Ohain Collection, [ca. 1930s-1980s]
von Ohain, Hans
20.03 cubic feet (17 records center boxes) (1 flatbox) (3 tubes)

Harriet Quimby Cigar Box Proof, [ca. 1920-1930]
Klingenberg Litho Company, Detmold, Germany
0.10 cubic feet (1 folder)

Harry Copland Collection, 1917-1953
Copland, Harry Depew, 1896-1976
0.78 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (3 shoeboxes)

Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers, 1906-1982 (bulk 1920-1933)
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985
3.27 cubic feet (3 records center boxes) (1 20x24x3 flatbox)
3.12 linear feet

Hawthorne Flying School (Beverly "Bevo" Howard) Collection, 1943-1960
Howard, Beverly E. "Bevo," 1914-1971
3.13 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box) (1 slim letter document box) (3 legal document boxes) (3 letter document boxes) (1 flatbox)

Henri Coanda Papers [Stine], 1920-1961 (bulk 1950s)
Coanda, Henri-Marie, 1885-1972
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)
1.04 linear feet

Henry V. Borst Collection
Borst, Henry V
11.99 cubic feet (11 record center boxes)

Homer E. Newell, Jr., Speech Transcripts, 1960-1973
Newell, Homer Edward, 1915-1983
0.90 cubic feet (2 legal document boxes)
0.84 linear feet

Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) Project Files
Johns Hopkins University
7.36 cubic feet (6 records center boxes)

Horace E. Weihmiller Collection, 1957-1963 (bulk 1959, 1963)
Weihmiller, Horace E., 1902-1976
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)
1.04 linear feet

Institute of Aeronautical Sciences Photograph Collection, 1928-1957
Institute of Aeronautical Sciences
2.16 cubic feet (4 15x18x3 flatboxes) (1 20x24x1 flatbox)
6.67 linear feet

J. Gordon Vaeth Collection, 1908-1992
Vaeth, J. Gordon Joseph Gordon, 1921
1.80 cubic feet (4 legal document boxes)

James C. Elms Collection, 1959-1974
Elms, James C., 1916
3.50 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (3 records center boxes)

James Vernon Martin Papers, 1885-1956
Martin, James Vernon, 1885-1956
2.25 cubic feet (5 legal document boxes)

Japanese World War II Aircraft Articles Collection, [ca. 1940s]
Beilstein, Chris
2.63 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (2 records center boxes)

Jean Warren (J. W.) Seele Aircraft Photography Collection, [ca. 1950s-1970s]
Seele, Jean W. Jean Warren, 1924-1993
12.11 cubic feet (1 shoebox) (7 slide and card cabinets)

Jerome Clarke Hunsaker Papers, 1916-1969
Hunsaker, Jerome Clarke, 1886-1984
8.72 cubic feet (8 records center boxes)
8.32 linear feet

Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publications Collection, 1947-1980 (1960-1970)
Jet Propulsion Laboratory. University of California
31.95 cubic feet (71 legal document boxes)
29.82 linear feet

Joel Banow Collection, [ca. 1960s-1970s]
Banow, Joel
1.92 cubic feet (1 records center box) (1 flatbox)

John A. O'Keefe Collection
O'Keefe, John Aloysius, 1916
31.61 cubic feet (29 record center boxes)

John B. Walker Collection, [ca. 1930s-1980s]
Walker, John B. John Byrnes, 1898-1986
0.10 cubic feet (2 folders)

John Bodine Autograph Collection
Bodine, John
0.45 cubic feet (1 legal document box)

John E. Parker Collection, 1940-1945
Parker, John E
3.09 cubic feet (1 records center box) (4 flatboxes)

John Guy Gilpatric Collection, [ca. 1910-1918]
Gilpatric, John Guy, 1896-1950
2.17 cubic feet (10 folders) (3 flatboxes)

John Jay Ide Collection, 1911-1962 (bulk 1920-1945)
Ide, John Jay, 1892-1962
10.81 cubic feet (9 records center boxes) (1 scrapbook)

John Leland Atwood Collection, [ca. 1920s-1990s]
Atwood, John Leland, 1904-1999
19.81 cubic feet (9 records center boxes) (10 flatboxes)

John Miller Collection, 1910-1973
Miller, John Matthew, 1896
0.90 cubic feet (2 legal document boxes)

Joseph D. Mountain Collection, 1916-1970
Mountain, Joseph D. 1902-1970
1.10 cubic feet (1 records center box) (1 oversize folder)
1.04 linear feet

Juan Terry Trippe Collection, 1917-1968
Trippe, J. T. Juan Terry, 1899-1981
25.28 cubic feet (4 flatboxes) (20 records center boxes)

J.W. Smith Collection, 2001-0011
Smith, John William, 1871
0.89 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (1 flatbox)

Krafft A. Ehricke Papers
Ehricke, Krafft, 1917-1984
95.70 cubic feet (66 letter document boxes, 66 records center boxes)

Langley Experiments Scrapbooks, 1914-1915
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930
0.23 cubic feet (1 slim legal box)

Leslie A. A. Benson Collection, 1917-1919
Benson, Leslie A. A
0.23 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)

Lester D. Seymour Collection, 1928-1934
Seymour, Lester D., 1892
1.13 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box) (2 legal document boxes)

Louise McPhetridge Thaden Collection, 1925-1949
Thaden, Louise McPhetridge, 1905-1979
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)
2.08 linear feet

Lovell Lawrence, Jr. Collection, 1943-1953
Lawrence, Lovell, Jr., 1915-1971
3.27 cubic feet (3 records center boxes)
3.12 linear feet

Lynn V. Blankman Collection, 1906-1959
Blankman, Lynn V
0.23 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)
0.21 linear feet

Maitland B. Bleecker Collection, 1926-1937
Bleecker, Maitland B., 1903
0.65 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (1 oversized scrapbook)
0.42 linear feet

Malcolm D. Ross Papers, [ca. 1950s-1970s]
Ross, Malcolm D., 1919-1985
15.26 cubic feet (14 records center boxes) (2 flatboxes)

Martin Aircraft Company Photograph Collection, 1932-1972
Glenn L. Martin Company
119.90 cubic feet (110 records center boxes)
114.40 linear feet

Mary E. "Mother" Tusch Collection, 1915-1937 (bulk 1917-1924)
Tusch, Mary E. "Mother"
4.99 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (2 records center boxes) (5 flatboxes)

Matthew Bacon Sellers II Collection, 1889-1924
Sellers, Matthew Bacon, II, 1869-1932
0.68 cubic feet (2 legal document boxes)

Moisant Family Scrapbooks, 1910-1912
Moisant, John, 1868-1910
5.00 cubic feet (3 oversized boxes)

Myriam Johnston Scrapbook, 1917-1935
Johnston, Myriam Lahaurine
0.21 cubic feet (2 flatboxes)

Myron "Dan" Beard Collection 1930s-1960s
Beard, Myron Gould "Dan"
17.44 cubic feet (16 record center boxes)

NACA/NASA Langley Field Aircraft Log Books, 1923-1964 (bulk 1934-1940, 1951-1960)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Langley Research Center
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)

NACA/NASA Langley Photographic History, 1917-1993
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Langley Research Center
6.75 cubic feet (15 legal document boxes)
6.30 linear feet

Najeeb E. Halaby Collection
Halaby, Najeeb E., 1915
10.43t cubic feet (18 box)

NASA F-8 Supercritical Wing Collection, 1964-1972
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Langley Research Center
5.85 cubic feet (13 legal document boxes) (1 3"x38" tube)

NASA Publications and Press Material (1955-1980), 1955-1973
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
6.54 cubic feet (6 records center boxes)

NASA Publications and Press Material, 1963-1980
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
6.54 cubic feet (6 records center boxes)

National Aeronautic Association (NAA) Archives (1918-1976), 1918-1976
National Aeronautic Association U.S
51.72 cubic feet (10 legal document boxes) (41 records center boxes) (23 shoeboxes)

North American XB-70-1, 1970
North American Aviation, Inc
0.36 cubic feet (1 letter document box)

Northwest Airlines Training Film and Manuals Collection, 1960-1996
Northwest Airlines, inc
19.62 cubic feet (18 records center boxes)
18.72 linear feet

NOTSNIK Videotape and Hiroshima Photographs
Premselaar, S. Joel, 1920
.25 cubic feet (3 folders, 1 VHS tape)

Octave Chanute Collection [Avery], 1886-1926
Chanute, Octave, 1832-1910
0.45 cubic feet (1 legal document box)

Octave Chanute Papers, 1890-1911
Chanute, Octave, 1832-1910
1.35 cubic feet (3 legal document boxes)

Operation Crossroads Scrapbook, 1946
United States. Army Air Forces
0.83 cubic feet (1 flatbox)

Paul H. Wilkinson Papers, 1944-1984
Wilkinson, Paul Howard, 1895-1975
42.51 cubic feet (39 records center boxes) (1 flatbox)

Paul Studenski Collection, 1887-1961
Studenski, Paul, 1887-1961
1.00 cubic feet (2 scrapbooks) (1 folder)

Peenemunde Archiv Reports, 1938-1945
Peenemunde Research and Development Station
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)

Peenemunde Document Collection, 1941-1944
Peenemunde Research and Development Station
0.45 cubic feet (1 legal document box)

Peenemunde Interviews Project, 1989-1990
Neufeld, Michael J., 1951
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)

Peter W. Westburg Drawings, 1970-1981
Westburg, Peter W., 1914-1984
2.20 cubic feet (1 map case drawer)

Phillips Ward Page Scrapbook, 1911-1912
Page, Phillips Ward, 1885-1917
0.23 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)

President's Air Policy Commission Collection, 1947
United States. President's Air Policy Commission
0.15 cubic feet (1 legal document box)

Project Mercury "Big Joe" Installation Records (Eiband Collection), 1959
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)

Ralph Hazlett Upson Collection, 1940-1960 (bulk 1911-1968)
Upson, Ralph Hazlett, 1888-1968
6.45 cubic feet (6 records center boxes)
6.24 linear feet

Ralph Stanton Barnaby Papers, 1915-1986
Barnaby, Ralph S. Ralph Stanton, 1893-1986
3.15 cubic feet (7 legal document boxes)
2.94 linear feet

Richard E. Byrd Scrapbooks, 1927-1933
Byrd, Richard Evelyn, 1888-1957
1.15 cubic feet (5 flatboxes)

Richard Porter Papers, [ca. 1930s-1980]
Porter, Richard W. Richard William, 1913-1996
6.54 cubic feet (6 records center boxes)

Richard Tousey Papers, [ca. 1940s-1980s] (bulk [ca. 1960s])
Tousey, Richard, 1908-1997
14.13 cubic feet (7 records center boxes) (17 other boxes) (1 flatboxes)

Robert B. Meyer Jr. Papers, 1898-1980 (bulk 1963-1980)
Meyer, Robert B
22.45 cubic feet (19 records center boxes) (2 flatboxes)

Robert E. Johnson Collection (1939-1958), 1939-1958
Johnson, Robert E., 1903
4.95 cubic feet (1 flatbox) (4 records center boxes)

Robert Gordon Rocket Propulsion Collection, [ca 1940s-1950s]
Gordon, Robert
0.68 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (1 slim legal document box)

Robert S. Sanford Collection 1917-1970
Sanford, Robert S. 1897-1981
.55 cubic feet (1 box, 1 folder in oversized box)

Robert Soubiran Collection, 1914-1949
Soubiran, Robert
0.23 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)

Rocket, Space, and Early Artillery History, [ca. 1000-1960] (bulk [ca. 1940-1960])
National Air and Space Museum U.S.. Division of Space History
15.26 cubic feet (14 records center boxes)

Rockwell HiMAT RPRV Documentation, 1976-1981
Rockwell International
5.68 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box) (5 records center boxes) (2 flatboxes)

Rotorway Scorpion Too Collection, [ca. 1970s]
Rotorway Aircraft, Inc Rotorway International
0.45 cubic feet (1 legal document box)

Rutan Model 33 Vari-Eze Collection, 1976-1988
Eggleston, James O
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box) (1 flatbox)

S. Fred Singer Papers, 1953-1989 (bulk 1960-1980)
Singer, S. Fred Siegfried Fred, 1924
54.50 cubic feet (50 records center boxes)

Samuel P. Langley Collection, 1891-1914 (bulk 1891-1900)
Langley, S. P. Samuel Pierpont, 1834-1906
0.90 cubic feet (2 legal document boxes) (1 flatbox)

Sea Air Operations Gallery Collection, [ca. 1940s, 1980s]
National Air and Space Museum U.S.. Division of Aeronautics
2.93 cubic feet (6 legal document boxes) (1 slim document box)

Secor Browne Papers, 1966-1980 (bulk 1969-1972)
Browne, Secor Delaney, 1916
6.54 cubic feet (6 records center boxes)

Shakir S. Jerwan Scrapbooks, 1911-1919
Jerwan, Shakir S., 1881-1942
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)

Signal Corps Photographs, [ca. 1920s]
United States. Army. Signal Corps
0.06 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)

Skylab 4 Commander's Flight Data File (Gerald Carr Collection, 1973
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
4.36 cubic feet (4 records center boxes)

Skylab 4 Pilot's Flight Data File (William R. Pogue Collection), 1966-1974
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
9.81 cubic feet (9 records center boxes)

Skylab Food Heating / Serving Tray Collection, [ca. 1970s]
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
0.45 cubic feet (1 legal document box)

Skylab (McDonnell-Douglas) Collection, 1970-1974
McDonnell Douglas Corp. McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co
1.53 cubic feet (1 records center box) (1 flatbox)

Southern Four-Course Radio Range Charts 1940
United States. Civil Aeronautics Authority
.12 cubic feet (1 flat box)

Southwest Pacific Theater Intelligence Reports, 1942-1945
Allied Air Forces. Directorate of Intelligence
10.90 cubic feet (10 records center boxes)

Space Acceleration Measurement Unit System (SAMS) Collection, [ca. 1990s]
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
2.18 cubic feet (3 legal document boxes) (1 flatbox)

Space Shuttle Enterprise OV-101 Film Footage, [ca. 1970s]
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)

Space Suit Android Drawings, 1964
International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation
3.1 cubic feet (1 24x38x2 drawer)
4.26 linear feet

Space Suit Component and Survival Rucksack Collection, 1966-1977
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
3.36 cubic feet (2 Records center boxes) (2 flatboxes)

Space Suit Patterns, [ca. 1960s]
David Clark Company, Inc
7.63 cubic feet (7 records center boxes)

Space Telescope History Project, 1983-1991
National Air and Space Museum U.S.. Division of Space History
14.17 cubic feet (13 records center boxes)

"Stalking the U-boat" Research Collection, 1940-1944
Schoenfeld, Maxwell Philip, 1936
9.81 cubic feet (9 records center boxes)

Stratoscope II Collection, 1963-1970
DeVorkin, David H., 1944
1.54 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (1 records center box)

Stratospheric Ballooning (Skyhook) Collection, [ca. 1940s-1960s]
United States. Office of Naval Research
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)

"The Flying Machines" Souce Material, 1989
Smithsonian Institution
6.54 cubic feet (6 records center boxes)

The Royale Line [Sikorsky S-38] Collection Enter dates
Enter creator, if applicable Enter birth-death
.47 cubic feet (1 box)

The Swoose: Odyssey of a B-17 Collection, 1939-1943
Brownstein, Herb
0.90 cubic feet (2 legal document boxes)
0.84 linear feet

Theodore G. Ellyson Correspondence, 1911-1914
Ellyson, Theodore Gordon, 1885-1928
0.23 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)

Thomas Taylor Neill Collection, 1926-1972 (bulk 1938-1943)
Neill, Thomas Taylor, 1903-1988
17.25 cubic feet (2 legal document boxes) (15 records center boxes)

Tiros Satellite Documents, 1959-1970
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
5.45 cubic feet (5 records center boxes)

Tracking and Data Relay Satellites System (TDRSS) Documentation
Contel Federal Systems, Fairfax, VA
.90 cubic feet (2 letter document boxes, 1 slim letter document box)

Travel Air Negatives, 1925-1942 (bulk 1925-1929)
Travel Air Manufacturing Co
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)

United States Army Balloons World War I Album, [no year]
United States. Army Air Service. Army Balloon School. Fort Omaha, Neb
0.66 cubic feet (1 flatbox)

United States Boomerang Association Records, 1983-1987
United States Boomerang Association
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)

United States Navy Aircraft History Cards (Microfilm) 1911-1973
United States. Navy
1.96 cubic feet (128 35mm microfilm boxes) (63 16mm microfilm boxes) (1 microfilm carton)

United States Navy Engineering Drawings on Microfilm, [no dates]
United States. Navy Dept. Bureau of Aeronautics
69.84 cubic feet (776 microfilm cartons)

United States Space Program Collection, 1950-1974 (bulk 1959-1974)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Space Science and Exploration Department
13.08 cubic feet (12 records center boxes)

United States Space Program Oral History Collection, 1959-1969
Kapp, Michael
28.21 cubic feet (44 legal document boxes) (9 letter document boxes) (7 flatboxes) (7 custom-made boxes)

Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel (V-2 Panel) Reports, 1946-[ca. 1960s]
Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel V-2 Panel
1.35 cubic feet (3 legal document boxes)

V-2 White Sands Collection, 1946
Novak, Charles Frank, Sr
0.23 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)

Vandenberg Shuttle Program Collection, [ca. 1980s]
Vandenberg Air Force Base Calif
3.28 cubic feet (3 records center boxes) (1 folder)

Virtual Reality Helmet Collection, [ca. 1980s]
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Ames Research Center
1.54 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (1 records center box)

Voyager Around the World Flight Collection, 1986-1987
Riva, Peter
9.89 cubic feet (1 letter document box) (8 records center boxes) (2 shoeboxes) (1 flatbox)

Voyager II Uranus Moon and Ring Images, 1985-1986
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)

Waco Aircraft Company Records, 1930-1950
Waco Aircraft Company
184.1 cubic feet (168 Legal document boxes) (35 drawers)
219.66 linear feet

Waco Model W Aristo-Craft Drawings Collection, 1947
Waco Aircraft Company
5.03 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box) (4 legal document boxes) (55 rolled drawings)

Wallace McCrane World War I Collection, 1918-1924
McCrane, Wallace Downs, 1896-1975
0.45 cubic feet (1 legal document box)

Wesley Archer (Cockburn-Lange Hoax) Collection, 1916-1960
Archer, Wesley David
5.45 cubic feet (5 records center boxes) (1 16x20x3 flatbox)
5.20 linear feet

Wiley Post Scrapbooks, 1933
Post, Wiley, 1898-1935
2.25 cubic feet (5 legal document boxes)

William Carl Diehl Collection, 1912-1972 (bulk 1945-1972)
Diehl, William Carl, 1891-1974
2.70 cubic feet (6 legal document boxes) (1 20x24x3 flatbox)
2.52 linear feet

William E. Brunk Collection, 1963-1984
Brunk, William Edward, 1928
0.68 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (1 slim legal document box)

William E. G. Taylor Collection, [ca. 1920s-1970s]
Taylor, William E. G., 1905-1991
1.14 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box) (1 flatbox)

William F. Meggers Aerial Photography Collection, 1918
Meggers, William F., 1888-1966
1.34 cubic feet (1 records center box) (1 flatbox)

William H. Leininger Collection 1917-1926
Leininger, William H., 1894-1991
1.59 cubic feet (1 records center box) (1 flatbox)

William I. Votaw Air Mail Collection, 1921-1983
Votaw, William I
0.68 cubic feet (1 legal document box) (1 slim legal document box)

Willy Ley Papers, 1859-1969 (bulk 1930-1969)
Ley, Willy, 1906-1969
35.97 cubic feet (33 records center boxes)

Windecker Projects Collection, 1917-1966
Windecker, Leo J., 1921
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes)

Winfield B. "Bert" Kinner Collection, 1919-1993
Kinner, Winfield B. "Bert," 1882-1957
1.09 cubic feet (1 records center box)

Women Flyers of America Collection, 1940-1955 (bulk 1942-1953)
Women Flyers of America WFA
3.05 cubic feet (1 flatbox) (2 records center boxes)

World War I Exhibit Collection, 1914-[ca. 1980s] (bulk 1914-1918)
National Air and Space Museum U.S
2.70 cubic feet (6 legal document boxes) (1 oversized box)

Wright Field Technical Documents Library, 1915-1955
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Ohio
464.34 cubic feet (426 records center boxes)

Wright Model B Modified Flyer, 1976
Fairmont East High School, Kettering, Ohio
0.22 cubic feet (1 flatbox)

Wright/McCook Field Still Photograph Collection, 1918-1971
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Ohio
899.25 cubic feet (825 records center boxes)


OUR NATION'S AIR

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to protecting public health by improving air quality and reducing air pollution. This annual report, titled Our Nation's Air , summarizes the nation's air quality status and trends through 2018. Please read and enjoy the full report below, and be sure to download and share the one page summary using the share button at the top. Additional detail on air trends can be found at EPA's AirTrends website.

Scroll down to read more or use the top menu to jump to a topic. If you encounter any issues viewing content, update or try opening the website in another browser.

Since 1970, implementation of the Clean Air Act and technological advances from American Innovators have dramatically improved air quality in the U.S. Cleaner air provides important public health benefits.

Air Quality Trends Show Clean Air Progress

Nationally, concentrations of air pollutants have dropped significantly since 1990:

  • Carbon Monoxide (CO) 8-Hour, 74%
  • Lead (Pb) 3-Month Average, 82% (from 2010)
  • Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Annual, 57%
  • Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 1-Hour, 50%
  • Ozone (O3) 8-Hour, 21%
  • Particulate Matter 10 microns (PM10) 24-Hour, 26%
  • Particulate Matter 2.5 microns (PM2.5) Annual, 39% (from 2000)
  • Particulate Matter 2.5 microns (PM2.5) 24-Hour, 34% (from 2000)
  • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) 1-Hour, 89%
  • Numerous air toxics have declined with percentages varying by pollutant

During this same period, the U.S. economy continued to grow, Americans drove more miles and population and energy use increased.

Emissions of key air pollutants continue to decline from 1990 levels:

  • Carbon Monoxide (CO), 67%
  • Ammonia (NH3), 22%
  • Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), 59%
  • Direct Particulate Matter 2.5 microns (PM2.5), 30%
  • Direct Particulate Matter 10 microns (PM10), 25%
  • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), 88%
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), 42%

In addition, from 1990 to 2014 emissions of air toxics declined by 68 percent, largely driven by federal and state implementation of stationary and mobile source regulations, and technological advancements from American innovators.

Wildfire data excluded for all pollutants except for NH3 pre-2002 PM emissions also exclude miscellaneous emissions (i.e., agricultural dust and prescribed fire data). Visit the emissions trends website to learn more.

Tip Click pollutant names in the chart legend to hide or include trend lines, and hover over any line to display percentages above or below the most recent standard. Click the Emission Totals tab to view emission trends.

Air Pollution Includes Gases and Particles

Air pollution consists of gas and particle contaminants that are present in the atmosphere. Gaseous pollutants include sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), certain toxic air pollutants and some gaseous forms of metals. Particle pollution (PM2.5 and PM10) includes a mixture of compounds that can be grouped into five major categories: sulfate, nitrate, elemental (black) carbon, organic carbon and crustal material.

Some pollutants are released directly into the atmosphere while other pollutants are formed in the air from chemical reactions. Ground-level ozone forms when emissions of NOx and VOCs react in the presence of sunlight. Air pollution impacts human health and the environment through a variety of pathways.

Six Common Pollutants

The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for specific pollutants to safeguard human health and the environment. These standards define the levels of air quality that EPA determines are necessary to protect against the adverse impacts of air pollution based on scientific evidence. EPA has established standards for six common air pollutants, which are referred to as “criteria” pollutants.

  • Carbon monoxide (CO)
  • Lead (Pb)
  • Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
  • Ozone (O3)
  • Particulate matter (PM), and
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

Understanding Emission Sources Helps Control Air Pollution

Generally, emissions of air pollution come from

  • stationary fuel combustion sources (such as electric utilities and industrial boilers),
  • industrial and other processes (such as metal smelters, petroleum refineries, cement kilns and dry cleaners),
  • highway vehicles, and
  • non-road mobile sources (such as recreational and construction equipment, marine vessels, aircraft and locomotives).

As the chart shows, pollutants are emitted by a variety of sources. For example, electric utilities, part of the stationary fuel combustion category, release SO2, NOx and particles.

Emission Inventories

EPA and states track direct emissions of air pollutants and precursor emissions, which are emissions that contribute to the formation of other pollutants in the atmosphere. Emissions data are compiled from many different organizations, including industry and state, tribal and local agencies. Some emissions data are based on actual measurements while others are estimates. For more information, please visit the Air Emissions Inventories website.

Air Pollution Can Affect Our Health and Environment in Many Ways

Numerous scientific studies have linked air pollution to a variety of health problems. People at greater risk for experiencing air pollution-related health effects may, depending on the pollutant, include older adults, children and those with heart and respiratory diseases &mdash 30-second Healthy Heart video.

Health Effects Breathing elevated levels of CO reduces the amount of oxygen reaching the body’s organs and tissues. For those with heart disease, this can result in chest pain and other symptoms leading to hospital admissions and emergency department visits.

Environmental Effects Emissions of CO contribute to the formation of CO2 and ozone, greenhouse gases that warm the atmosphere.

Health Effects Air toxics may cause a broad range of health effects depending on the specific pollutant, the amount of exposure, and how people are exposed. People who inhale high levels of certain air toxics may experience eye, nose and throat irritation, and difficulty breathing. Long term exposure to certain air toxics can cause cancer and long-term damage to the immune, neurological, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Some air toxics contribute to ozone and particle pollution with associated health effects (see above).

Environmental Effects Some toxic air pollutants accumulate in the food chain after depositing to soils and surface waters. Wildlife and livestock may also be harmed with sufficient exposure. Some toxic air pollutants contribute to ozone and particle pollution with associated environmental and climate effects (see above).

Health Effects Depending on the level of exposure, lead may harm the developing nervous system of children, resulting in lower IQs, learning deficits and behavioral problems. Longer-term exposure to higher levels of lead may contribute to cardiovascular effects, such as high blood pressure and heart disease in adults.

Environmental Effects Elevated amounts of lead accumulated in soils and fresh water bodies can result in decreased growth and reproductive rates in plants and animals.

Health Effects Short-term exposures to NO2 can aggravate respiratory diseases, particularly asthma, leading to respiratory symptoms, hospital admissions and emergency department visits. Long-term exposures to NO2 may contribute to asthma development and potentially increase susceptibility to respiratory infections.

Environmental Effects Oxides of nitrogen react with volatile organic compounds to form ozone and react with ammonia and other compounds to form particle pollution resulting in associated public health and environmental effects. Deposition of nitrogen oxides contributes to the acidification and nutrient enrichment (eutrophication, nitrogen saturation) of soils and surface waters. These effects can change the diversity of ecosystems.

Deposition of sulfur oxides contributes to the acidification of soils and surface waters and mercury methylation in wetland areas. Sulfur oxides cause injury to vegetation and species loss in aquatic and terrestrial systems and contribute to particle formation with associated environmental effects. Sulfate particles contribute to the cooling of the atmosphere.

Health Effects Ozone exposure reduces lung function and causes respiratory symptoms, such as coughing and shortness of breath. Ozone exposure also aggravates asthma and lung diseases such as emphysema leading to increased medication use, hospital admissions, and emergency department visits. Exposure to ozone may also increase the risk of premature mortality from respiratory causes. Short-term exposure to ozone is also associated with increased total non-accidental mortality, which includes deaths from respiratory causes.

Environmental Effects Ozone damages vegetation by injuring leaves, reducing photosynthesis, impairing reproduction and growth and decreasing crop yields. Ozone damage to plants may alter ecosystem structure, reduce biodiversity and decrease plant uptake of CO2. Ozone is also a greenhouse gas that contributes to the warming of the atmosphere.

Health Effects Exposures to PM, particularly fine particles referred to as PM2.5, can cause harmful effects on the cardiovascular system including heart attacks and strokes. These effects can result in emergency department visits, hospitalizations and, in some cases, premature death. PM exposures are also linked to harmful respiratory effects, including asthma attacks.

Environmental Effects Fine particles (PM2.5) are the main cause of reduced visibility (haze) in parts of the U.S., including many national parks and wilderness areas. PM can also be carried over long distances by wind and settle on soils or surface waters. The effects of settling include: making lakes and streams acidic changing the nutrient balance in coastal waters and large river basins depleting the nutrients in soil damaging sensitive forests and farm crops and affecting the diversity of ecosystems. PM can stain and damage stone and other materials, including culturally important objects such as statues and monuments.

Health Effects Short-term exposures to SO2 are linked with respiratory effects including difficulty breathing and increased asthma symptoms. These effects are particularly problematic for asthmatics while breathing deeply such as when exercising or playing. Short-term exposures to SO2 have also been connected to increased emergency department visits and hospital admissions for respiratory illnesses, particularly for at-risk populations including children, older adults and those with asthma. SO2 contributes to particle formation with associated health effects.


Contents

Background Edit

The Indian Railways had commissioned a study during 1998–99 to identify rail projects for commuter travel in NCR and Delhi. It identified RRTS for connecting NCR towns to Delhi with fast commuter trains. The proposal was re-examined in 2006 in the light of extension of Metro to some of the NCR towns. The Planning Commission formed a Task Force in 2005 under the Chairmanship of Secretary, Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) to develop a multi-modal transport system for National Capital Region (NCR). This was included in the Integrated Transport Plan for NCR 2032 with special emphasis on Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) connecting regional centers. The Task Force identified 8 corridors and prioritised three corridors namely Delhi-Ghaziabad-Meerut, Delhi-Panipat and Delhi-Gurugram-SNB-Alwar for implementation. In March 2010, National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) appointed M/S Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System for Delhi-Ghaziabad-Meerut and Delhi-Panipat and M/S Urban Mass Transit Company Limited for Delhi-Gurugram-SNB-Alwar to carry out feasibility study and prepare the Detailed Project Report.

History of NCRTC Edit

The NCRTC came into existence in 2013. On 11 July 2013 the Union Cabinet approved constitution of National Capital Region Transport Corporation Limited (NCRTC) under the Companies Act, 1956 with initial seed capital of ₹100 crores as per Company Act, 1956 for designing, developing, implementing, financing, operating and maintaining Regional Rapid Transit system (RRTS) in National Capital Region (NCR) to provide comfortable and fast transit to NCR towns and meet the high growth in transport demand. Accordingly, NCRTC has been incorporated on 1 August 2013. [2] This company may form subsidiary companies for implementing each corridor. The seed capital was to be contributed as follows: [3]

Government of India
Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs 22.5%
Ministry of Railways 22.5%
National Capital Region Planning Board 5.0%
State Governments
Government of NCT Delhi 12.5%
Government of Uttar Pradesh 12.5%
Government of Rajasthan 12.5%
Government of Haryana 12.5%

Phase 1 Edit

The NCRTC board approved the Detailed Project Report (DPR) for Delhi-Ghaziabad-Meerut RRTS corridor on 6 December 2016. [4] Subsequent to the approval of DPR by States and Union Government, on 8 March 2019, the Prime Minister of India laid the foundation stone of India's first Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) between Delhi-Ghaziabad-Meerut. The civil construction work is in progress [5] and the priority section of the corridor between Sahibabad to Duhai is targeted to be commissioned by 2023.The travel time between the Delhi and Meerut will reduce to less than 60 minutes from the existing around three hours, once this RRTS gets operational. [6]

The second prioritized RRTS corridor between Delhi-Gurugram-SNB-Alwar is planned to be executed in three stages. The DPR of first stage between Delhi-Gurugram-SNB was approved by NCRTC Board on 6 December 2018. Subsequently, the Governments of Haryana, Rajasthan and NCT Delhi approved the DPR of the corridor and it is under active consideration of the Government of India for sanction. The DPR of second stage of this corridor between SNB (Shahjahanpur-Neemrana-Behror Urban Complex) to Sotanala has also approved by NCRTC Board on 13 March 2020.

The DPR of the third prioritized RRTS corridor between Delhi-Panipat was approved by NCRTC Board on 13 March 2020.

NCRTC unveiled the first look of India's first RRTS on 25 September 2020. The prototype of RRTS is scheduled to roll off the production line in 2022 and will be put into public use after extensive trials. [7]

  • RRTS is a rail-based semi-high speed, high frequency, high capacity, comfortable, air-conditioned, reliable, and safe commuter service connecting regional nodes.
  • Design Speed – 180 km/h, Operational Speed -160 km/h, Average Speed of 100 km/h – Delhi to Meerut in less than 55 minutes (three times the speed of metro)
  • Train every

Unique aspects of RRTS Edit

Waiting time and number of interchanges are two major deterrents in the adoption of any public transport system. To provide seamless movement to the commuters, the three RRTS corridors of phase – 1, i.e. Delhi – Ghaziabad – Meerut, Delhi - Panipat, and Delhi – Gurugram – SNB - Alwar will be integrated at Delhi's Sarai Kale Khan and remain interoperable. The interoperability of the three RRTS corridors will provide a hassle-free, comfortable, and seamless travel experience to the commuters. The trains will move from one corridor to another that facilitate commuters to travel from one corridor station to another without changing the train, thus motivating them to leave their private vehicles and switch to RRTS.

Multimodal Integration [9]

RRTS stations would be integrated with various modes of public transport systems like Airport, Indian Railway Stations, Inter-State Bus Terminus, Delhi Metro Stations, wherever possible. The integration will facilitate the seamless movement of commuters from one mode of public transport to another. Seamless integration between different modes of transport will encourage people to use public transport. While RRTS will act as a backbone for regional transportation, Delhi Metro lines will complement it by providing feeder dispersal services. The Sarai Kale Khan RRTS station will be a mega terminal where all 3 Phase-I RRTS corridors will merge.

Multimodal Integration of RRTS Stations
RRTS Station Mode of transport with which integration will be provided
Ghaziabad New Bus Adda
New Ashok Nagar New Ashok Nagar Metro Station
Anand Vihar Anand Vihar Metro Station, Anand Vihar ISBT and UPSRTC Bus Depot (Kaushambi) [10]
Sarai Kale Khan Line 7 (Pink Line) of Delhi Metro, Hazrat Nizamuddin Railway Station and ISBT Sarai Kale Khan
INA Line 2 (Yellow) of Delhi Metro
Aerocity Indira Gandhi International Airport, Airport Express Line of Delhi Metro and Proposed phase IV of Delhi Metro
Udyog Vihar Proposed extension of Gurugram Rapid Metro and Proposed Metro from Gurugram railway station
Kherki Dhaula Toll Proposed Bawal Metro and Proposed Bus Terminus
Panchgao Proposed Bawal Metro, Proposed ISBT and Proposed Multimodal Hub
Bawal Bawal Bus Stand

Operation of RRTS will promote the use of public transport. It will encourage the commuters to leave their private vehicles for public transport. [11]

Option of Business Class: Each RRTS train will have a separate business coach. This will encourage the business class commuters of NCR to switch to public transport for intercity travel.

Comfortable Travel: The air-conditioned RRTS coaches will have transverse seating arrangement with an overhead space for keeping luggage, Wi-Fi connection among other modern amenities.

Women Coach : Each RRTS train will have a separate coach for women travelers just like Delhi Metro.

Universal Accessibility: The entire infrastructure of RRTS either stations or train will be made giving all due importance to universal accessibility.

Need for RRTS Project Edit

The National Capital Region (NCR) has grown over the years to cover parts of states around Delhi namely, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. Today the total area which falls under NCR is about 55,083 km 2 [2] with the total population of over 46 million (4.6 crores) (Census 2011). The region has seen a decadal population growth of

24% between 2001 and 2011. Entire NCR is an urban agglomeration with an urbanization of about 62%.

Further, in 2007, the number of Passenger vehicles crossing Delhi borders breached 1,100,000 (Eleven Lakhs) per day. Further, the rail-based inter- regional commuter demand in NCR is estimated to be 1.7 million passengers per day by 2032. This has triggered the need to have effective regional public transport system on a priority.

Benefits of RRTS Project Edit

Enhanced Economic Activities Edit

A high-speed, comfortable and affordable mode of transport like RRTS has the potential to change the movement patterns of people and usher-in economic development across the region. With reduced travel times, the overall productivity of the region would improve, leading to improved overall economic activity leading to balanced economic development. The RRTS would lead to a polycentric economic development in a uniform manner across the region. [12]

Lower Emissions Edit

With a reduced number of private vehicles and shift towards clean transportation system like RRTS, fuel consumption is expected to go down. Low fuel consumption means lower emissions and less pollution. [13]

Easing of Road Congestion Edit

RRTS has capacity to ferry a larger number of people per hour. RRTS, which could shift a large amount of traffic from road to rail could free up a lot of road space and ease congestion on highways across the NCR. The Delhi-Ghaziabad-Gurugram RRTS corridor alone is expected to take off over 1 lakh vehicles from the road, easing congestion on the road. [14]

Improved Access to Jobs and Facilities Edit

The three corridors of Phase-I alone is expected to generate 21000 direct jobs. The RRTS would open up new markets and opportunities for people by connecting them through a high-speed network. The commuters will get a world-class travel experience. The faster commute would allow people to have access to better facilities like healthcare, education etc. [15]

Savings in Travel Cost and Time Edit

The high-speed journey through RRTS will be offered at an affordable price leading to savings, increasing their disposable incomes and quality of life. A faster commute would free up people's time for more productive activities. [16]

Reduced Energy Use Edit

With the low land footprint and high throughput, RRTS will be rail-based efficient system. It will mark a modal shift in favour of public transports, reducing the use of private vehicles. Implementation of Delhi-Ghaziabad-Meerut RRTS Corridor is expected to shift the modal share in favour of public transport from 37% to 63% in the region. A shift towards public transportation will reduce the energy use by the transport sector in the National Capital Region. This would not only lead to reduced fuel consumption in the region, but also the country's import dependence on foreign oil. [17]

Technology Edit

NCRTC is implementing state-of-the-art rail based rapid transit system in National Capital Region with a design speed of 180 km/h. Such a speed will necessarily require grade separated track, latest signaling and control system, to ensure high throughput and safe operation. The rolling stock will be air-conditioned and having capability of high acceleration and deceleration in a very short span. The traction power will be through uniquely designed 25 KV flexible overhead catenary traction system for elevated stations and rigid overhead catenary system for tunnels. Key technologies:

Ballastless Track [18] Edit

Slab Track Austria system which is recognized for providing excellent riding comfort even at high-speed like 180 km/h will be used in RRTS. These tracks are being used in India for the first time. The tracks are also preferred for longer life span with less maintenance requirement. These tracks are also easy to replace.

ETCS Level 2 Signalling System [19] Edit

ETCS Level-2 signalling system is being used globally for high-speed railway transit. The system equipped with modern signalling with virtual blocks & ATO functionality over LTE backbone is being used for first time in India. A key feature of the RRTS is interoperability of all the corridors and ETCS Level 2 makes it possible. The system can monitor train speed, direction and provide operation directives using radio block centre. Use of virtual block facilitated by ETCS Level-2 signalling eliminates any possibility of train collision.

SPEED – Systematic Program Evaluation for Efficient Delivery of Project Edit

SPEED is NCRTC's in-house sophisticated, robust, reliable and user-friendly platform which leverages fundamental underlying technological frameworks such as JavaScript, PHP etc. It is a monitoring and Project management Tool for reporting activities of pre- construction and construction phases of the RRTS project.

Common Data Environment (CDE) Edit

CDE is implemented for maintaining common repository of all construction and pre-construction drawings and technical documents. It enables collaboration and sharing of updated information, documents, drawings in real time to achieve single source of truth across organisation, manage design, define and implement work-flows and monitor progress actions across the organisation. [20]

Building Information Modelling (BIM) [21] Edit

BIM is an intelligent 3D model-based process that provides architecture, engineering, and construction professionals the insight and tools to more effectively plan, design, construct, and manage buildings and infrastructure. Project related components like walls, doors etc. are modelled in 3D by using various BIM software. Currently all the stations are being designed and developed on BIM platform. BIM offers realistic 3D model giving a true sense of how the actual structure will look like which is appreciated by engineers.

Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) Edit

Continuously Operating Reference Stations, networks system including control station is being installed by NCRTC to increase the location accuracy in the Civil Construction Survey work. This system provides real-time precise coordinates for the measured locations and capable of ensuring 5 – 10 mm accuracy in the location of points, whereas, the normal GPS can only provide location accuracy of up to 10 to 15 metres. This eliminates cumulative errors in the civil Construction and results in better alignment acting as a life cycle management solution for the project.

The rolling stock will be provided by Bombardier Transportation, India for the Delhi–Meerut Regional Rapid Transit System and will be manufactured in Gujarat, India.The project scope involves supplying 30 regional commuter trainsets of six cars each and 10 intracity mass transit trainsets of three cars each, together with 15 years of rolling stock maintenance. The Letter of Award is valued at approximately ₹2577 crore (€314 million , $340 million US) and the customer has a provision to exercise an option of additional 90 cars and two years of maintenance. The design speed will be 180 km/h but will run at 160 km/h. The bogies will be based on Bombardier Transportation FLEXX Bogie family & the propulsion system will be based on MITRAC Propulsion system.

Phase I (Under Construction) Edit

Sl No. RRTS Corridors (Phase 1) Length (km) [22] [23] [24] Stations Cost [22] [23] [24] Construction Start [22] [23] [24] Completion [22] [23] [24] Project Updates [22] [23] [24]
1. Delhi-Ghaziabad-Meerut 82 km (51 mi) 17 ₹ 325,980 million (equivalent to ₹ 370 billion or US$5.2 billion in 2019) Jan 2019 2025 As of May 2020: The construction of India's first Regional Rail corridor is in full swing. Construction of Viaduct Segments are in progress at Casting yards for Package 1 & 2 situated at Vasundhara, Ghaziabad. The fabrication of launching girder is near completion and is likely to be erected shortly. On the 17-km long prioritized section between Sahibabad and Duhai around 1200 piles have been laid and 20 piers erected. Viaduct superstructure will be launched soon. While this part of the corridor will become operational by 2023, the commercial operations on the entire Delhi-Meerut corridor will commence by 2025.

Priority Section has been divided into two packages – Package I (From Vaishali to Ghaziabad via Sahibabad) and Package II (From Ghaziabad to EPE). It has four stations – Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, Guldhar and Duhai. Construction work is underway for all the four stations.

Road widening work is underway between Duhai to Shatabdi Nagar while utility diversion and pile load test is in progress at different locations between Duhai to Modipuram. UPPTCL Electrical High-Tension line of 220kV, double-circuit at Sahibabad - Muradnagar near Arthala (Ghaziabad) has been shifted recently. It was very critical and sensitive, given the presence of double track crossing of Indian Railways. With this, a total of 17 lines have been shifted to date for the execution of the RRTS project in a time-bound manner.

Crucial bids including the construction of Depot cum Workshop near Duhai RRTS Station (Package 5A) of Delhi - Ghaziabad - Meerut RRTS Corridor, construction of elevated viaduct from Sarai Kale Khan station to New Ashok Nagar DN Ramp including Jangpura Entry ramp and two elevated stations viz., Sarai Kale Khan and New Ashok Nagar amongst others have been invited and are under process.

Site offices at Gurugram and Delhi are operational and first civil construction package is in advance stages of finalisation.

* the engagement of Detailed Design Consultant for Civil, Architectural and E &M work for the design of seven no. elevated stations (Panchgaon, Bilaspur, Dharuhera, MBIR, Rewari, Bawal and SNB and Dharuhera Depot,

* engagement for proof checking consultant for Civil, Structural Design of elevated Viaduct from Delhi (SKK) to SNB (73 km) and 10 elevated stations and one depot at Dharuhera

* execution of enabling civil works and works related to utilities shifting such as water pipeline, stormwater drain, gas pipelines, etc. and associated electrical and telecom work between Sarai Kale Khan-IDPL Complex and IDPL Complex and SNB.

Phase II (Proposed) Edit

Corridors identified for second phase, with no budgetary approval as of July 2017, are: [25] [26]

The current proposed RRTS by Government will have travel time of Delhi-Panipat and Delhi-Meerut in 1 hour and Delhi-Alwar in 2 hours. This will result in facilitating seamless travel of people between the CBD and suburbs in NCR. Recently all state governments have approved the alignments of the three Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) corridors. These corridors will connect the capital with Panipat, Meerut and Alwar. These three alignments were recommended by the National Capital Regional Planning Board (NCRPB).

In its 36th meeting of the NCRPB held under the chairmanship of Union Urban Development Minister Venkaiah Naidu, the Board gave nod for implementation of three RRTS Corridors - Delhi-Alwar, Delhi-Panipat and Delhi-Meerut. Further, Minister Naidu said issues related to Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS), a rail-based system, have been resolved and further work on these three corridors, namely, Delhi-Alwar, Delhi-Panipat and Delhi-Meerut could be started immediately. [27] The minister also said that Managing Director of the NCRTC, Undertaking entrusted with the implementation of the RRTS, has been appointed and implementation of RRTS corridors will commence shortly. Indian Railway officer Shri. Vinay Kumar Singh has been appointed as the managing director of the company, who assumed office in July, 2016. [28] [29]

Many property related transactions and activities are happening in and around Delhi, especially in NCR region. The RRTS corridor development offers potential for increase in land value. Further, New development and /or townships can come around transit nodes along the corridor.

Government and NCRTC, on the lines of DMRC, is expected to explore opportunity to monetize transit-oriented development opportunities to partly finance the project cost and also fund development of future corridors.