USS Sagamore II - History

USS Sagamore II  - History

Sagamore II

(AT-20: dp. 1,000, 1. 156'8", b. 30', dr. 16' s. 13 cpl. 44; a. 2 3", 1 mg.; cl. Bagaduce)

The second Sagamore was ordered on 24 May 1917 from Buffalo Dry Dock Co., Buffalo, N.Y., as a steel oceangoing tug under War Shipping Board account for the United States Navy, named Comanche on 28 July 1917; renamed Sagamore on 30 October 1917; transferred to the Navy on 5 December 1917 at Buffalo in uncompleted condition taken to the Boston Navy Yard and commissioned on ;8 June 1918, Lt. (jg.) Claus K. R. Clausen in command.

Sagamore was completed on 16 July 1918 and assigned to the Naval Overseas Transportation Service (NOTS). She then operated on the United States east coast into 1919, towing barges from Norfolk to New York, Boston, and Portsmouth N. H. She was detached from NOTS on 27 January ;919 and assigned to the Train, Atlantic Fleet. Sagamore deployed southward to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, during February 1919 and again during March of the same year.

Sagamore remained in active service between the two world wars, operating all along the eastern seaboard. Her principal oceangoing duty was the towing of inactive vessels and small craft between various Navy Yards and naval operating bases .Sagamore towed submarines, "Eagle" boats, yard craft, and, during October 1927, the armored cruiser, Pueblo (ACR7). She took part in rescue and salvage operations on the submarine, Squalus (SS-192), during 1939.

During World War II, Sagamore continued to perform essential towing duty from her home yard, New York, to Norfolk, Philadelphia, New London, and bases as far north as Argentia, Newfoundland. Sagamore was reclassified ATO-20 in view of her advancing age but remained in constant employment until decommissioned on 31 August 1946 at New York Navy Yard. Struck from the Navy list on 28 January 1947, Sagamore was transferred to the Maritime Administration on 24 December 1947.


A Sad Day

Hello Readers of Mike in New Hampshire.

This is Mike’s daughter, Jessica. This will be my first and only guest blog on my dad’s beloved blog.

Mike passed away yesterday April 10, 2010, from a heart attack. He was 51.

I know that there are some of you who visit here often, so I thought that instead of letting you wonder where he had gone and why he was not writing anymore, he would want me to let you all know.

In the past few months, I know that he worked really hard to put this blog together and to make it great. He loved New Hampshire and he loved History, so I am happy that he started this project to share these things with you.

Even if no one actually read this blog, I’m pretty sure that he wouldn’t care, because taking pictures, “marker hunting”, writing about them and compiling this all made his last several months full and fun.

Thank you for reading his blog, and let it serve as a small memorial to my dad. He was a great guy, and he will be very missed.


Technical data

Physical arrangement

The Constitution-class featured the saucer section-engineering section-warp nacelle layout common to most Starfleet vessels. All ships of the class of the same level of refit appeared to be identical at first glance, but closer inspection revealed minor detail differences on certain vessels. ( TOS : " The Cage ", " The Ultimate Computer " Star Trek: The Motion Picture etc.)

The Constitution-class as it appears in TOS-R "The Cage"

The first model, used in the original pilot "The Cage", featured a larger bridge dome and sensor/deflector dish, and spikes on the Bussard collectors, among other minor differences. The second configuration, used in the second pilot, and throughout the rest of the series due to footage being reused, was similar to the first version, with the addition of running lights, additional markings, and a grille pattern on the rear of each engine nacelle.

The Constitution-class as it appears in TOS-R

The version used for the production of the regular series had a smaller bridge dome, a smaller sensor/deflector dish, and lighting effects in the Bussard collectors, which had their antenna spikes removed. The remastered edition of TOS replaced the anomalous stock shots in later episodes with the proper configuration.

The Constitution-class as it appears in DIS

A new, redesigned model for the Constitution-class USS Enterprise was introduced in "Will You Take My Hand?". After briefly considering a radical departure from previous depictions, the designers of this new model instead aimed "to get as close as possible to the original", yet add "the sleek, unique Discovery look to it." While DIS used this new model for all "current" depictions of the class, the "previously on" opening sequence of the Discovery episode "If Memory Serves" utilized an un-remastered shot of the TOS series version, in place of the pilot version, for the events of "The Cage". 4 A holographic image of this version of the Enterprise was also featured in the Star Trek: Picard episode " Maps and Legends ". 5

Various science labs, numbering fourteen in all, ( TOS : " Operation -- Annihilate! ") were located in the primary hull in the class's original configuration. An officers' lounge and dining area would be located in the aft superstructure beneath the bridge after the 2270s refit. ( citation needed • edit) ( Star Trek: The Motion Picture ) There were at least seven turbolifts that serviced the primary and secondary hulls. ( TOS : " The Man Trap ") The Constitution-class had at least two briefing rooms, one of which was located on Deck 14. ( TOS : " Mudd's Women ") The modular design of the Constitution-class allowed for component separation in times of crisis. The primary and secondary hulls could separate where the connecting "neck" joined the saucer, allowing either section to serve as a lifeboat if the other was too badly damaged. ( citation needed • edit) If an emergency was confined to the warp engine nacelles, it was theoretically possible to disengage and jettison them while keeping the bulk of the vessel intact. Any hull separation was considered a dangerous procedure and not always an option. ( TOS : " The Apple ", " The Savage Curtain ")

Though not an aerodynamic craft, in emergencies, Constitution-class vessels were able to break orbit and enter a class M planet's upper atmosphere (and maintain altitude control while passing through it) for a limited period of time, conditional on the ship's ability to re-achieve escape velocity. ( TOS : " Tomorrow is Yesterday ")

A model of a refit version of this ship present in a holographic simulation of Drafting Room 5 at Utopia Planitia Fleet Yards had the warp nacelles rotated 90 degrees and included additional hatches along both sides of the saucer. ( TNG : " Booby Trap ")

Propulsion systems

The Defiant, an original configuration Constitution-class vessel cruising at warp in the mirror universe

The Constitution-class of starships has been fitted with both lithium and dilithium reactor circuits in the warp drive assembly over its service lifetime. The vessel's standard cruising speed was warp 6, while its maximum cruising speed was warp 8. Warp 9 was also possible for this class of starship, although it was highly discouraged because it was an unsafe velocity. ( citation needed • edit)

The Enterprise was twice modified to achieve a speed of warp 11. The probe Nomad increased the ship's engine efficiency by 57% in 2267, allowing the ship to reach warp 11, but Kirk persuaded Nomad to reverse its "repairs" because the ship's structure could not stand the stress of that much power, and it would eventually destroy the ship. ( TOS : " The Changeling ")

More extensive modifications were made to the ship by the Kelvans in 2268, who were able to produce velocities that were far beyond the reach of Federation science, allowing the Enterprise to safely maintain a cruising speed of warp 11 while traveling through the intergalactic void. ( TOS : " By Any Other Name ")

The maximum warp speed recorded for this class by itself was warp 14.1, achieved by the Enterprise due to sabotage to the vessel's warp drive system. While the ship itself was not structured to take that speed for any length of time, the Enterprise was able to maintain that velocity for nearly fifteen minutes. ( TOS : " That Which Survives ")

The Enterprise also maintained stability at warp 22 while tractored to a ship going warp 32. ( TAS : " The Counter-Clock Incident ")

Following the 2270s refit of the class, the Constitution was equipped with a linear dilithium-controlled MARA (matter/antimatter reactor assembly), and a pulse dilithium-controlled assembly was installed by the mid 2290s aboard the USS Enterprise. ( Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country ) ( citation needed • edit)

The Constitution-class's impulse drive system was a twin-port engine, capable of velocities at least warp factor 0.8. ( Star Trek: The Motion Picture ) A fusion explosion equivalent to at least 97.835 megatons would result if the impulse engines were overloaded. ( TOS : " The Doomsday Machine ")

Tactical systems

While the Constitution class was never meant as a warship, the vessel was adequately well-armed for dealing with various threats. Exercising Federation defense policy and if need be sustained conflict was built into them. Thus they carried an array of weapons thus allowing them to hold their own against even dedicated warships of its day.

Phaser batteries

USS Enterprise firing her main batteries

During the early 2250s, Constitution-class heavy cruisers were armed with a complement of directed energy weapons, that possessed enough power to destroy half a continent in a concentrated bombardment. In addition, these vessels carried on board laser cannons, capable of operating on energy fed remotely from the ship. ( TOS : " The Cage ", " The Menagerie, Part I ", " The Menagerie, Part II ")

By 2257, phaser banks were standard complement aboard this class of ship. A bank actually consisted of a single emitter and its power supply, though it was common practice to fire two banks at a time and refer to it as a single firing. ( DIS : " Such Sweet Sorrow " TOS : " The Corbomite Maneuver ", " The Doomsday Machine ", " The Paradise Syndrome ")

Ship-mounted phaser banks had a range of approximately 90,000 kilometers. Like hand phasers, they were capable of being adjusted to stun, heat, or disintegrate targets, including objects or beings in space or on a planet's surface. The focus could be adjusted from a narrow to a wide beam. When only motion sensor readings were available, the ship's phasers could be set for proximity blast and bracket the approximate coordinates of the target. ( TOS : " Balance of Terror ", " A Piece of the Action ", " The Ultimate Computer ", " Who Mourns for Adonais? ", " The Paradise Syndrome ", " The Tholian Web ")

In the original configuration, a battery of several forward phaser emitters was located on the lower part of the ventral side of the saucer section. Aft firing banks were located above the shuttlebay on the secondary hull. There were also port, starboard, and midship phasers. ( ENT : " In a Mirror, Darkly, Part II " TOS : " Balance of Terror ", " The Paradise Syndrome ", " Arena ", " Friday's Child ", " Turnabout Intruder ").

A refit Constitution vessel fires its forward phasers

After the refit of the 2270s, Constitution-class ships mounted three dual-emitter phaser banks on the ventral and three on dorsal faces of the saucer. They covered the forward, port and starboard flanks. Two single emitter aft banks were above the shuttlebay and four midship single emitter banks were located on the ventral surface of the engineering hull. Phaser power was increased by drawing energy directly from the warp drive. This increase in firepower had a drawback, in that the phasers would be cut off if the main reactor was off-line. This problem hampered the USS Enterprise on at least two occasions, one in the 2270s and again in 2285. ( Star Trek: The Motion Picture Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan )

Torpedo systems

Torpedo launcher (original configuration)

Early configuration Constitution-class ships originally mounted six forward torpedo tubes on the underside of the saucer section, ( citation needed • edit) and one aft mounted tube at the end of the secondary hull. This combined arsenal was powerful enough to destroy the entire surface of a planet. ( TOS : " Arena ", " A Taste of Armageddon ", " Journey to Babel " TAS : " More Tribbles, More Troubles " ENT : " In a Mirror, Darkly, Part II ")

Torpedo manifest (refit configuration)

Torpedo launcher (refit configuration)

The post-refit vessels had two forward firing torpedo launchers, though each tube could fire at least two torpedoes before reloading. ( Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan Star Trek III: The Search for Spock )

Deflector shields

The Constitution-class starship had a powerful deflector shield grid in the 2260s. The shield grid was divided into four segments, referred to as "number one shield", "number two shield", etc. ( TOS : " Journey to Babel ", " Elaan of Troyius ") At full power, with the warp reactor tied into the shield system, it was capable of absorbing and repulsing a bombardment of energy impacts equal to the detonation of 360 photon torpedoes of the type the Enterprise was equipped with at the time, before the shielding power was completely lost. In 2267, for example, the Enterprise survived an attack from the Nomad probe. Nomad fired four powerful bolts of energy, each with the equivalent force of ninety photon torpedoes. The first hit reduced shielding power only by twenty percent. After being hit with the equal force of 270 photon torpedoes, warp maneuvering power was lost. Shields were lost with the fourth hit. ( TOS : " The Changeling ")

The deflector shield grid was much more vulnerable to intense standard phaser bombardment. In 2268, an Orion scout ship was able to cause buckling in some of the shields of the Enterprise after it had made just five attack runs on the ship. On the seventh run, the Enterprise lost one of its four shields. ( TOS : " Journey to Babel ") Other more powerful weaponry could take the shields down even more easily, the planet killer for example could completely deplete a Constitution-class starship's shielding power with only three hits with its antiproton beam. ( TOS : " The Doomsday Machine ")

The diversion of all but emergency maintenance power to the shields had the adverse effect of reducing phaser power by fifty percent. ( TOS : " The Tholian Web ") A single detonation of a nuclear warhead less than a hundred meters away could cause internal overloads on the ship and leak radiation through the shields to the outer regions of the ship. ( TOS : " Balance of Terror ") Without the warp reactor to power the shields, the system was not very effective in protecting the ship. With only the impulse reactors powering the shields, a D7-class Klingon battle cruiser could deplete a Constitution-class starships shielding power with only few passes of disruptor fire. ( TOS : " Elaan of Troyius ")

After the refit, in the 2280s, a Constitution-class starships needed 13.5 seconds to lower and raise their shields when taking a shuttlecraft on board via its tractor beam. Piloting the shuttle manually reduced this time significantly. ( Star Trek V: The Final Frontier ) During yellow alerts, defense fields were activated to offer basic protection to the main bridge. ( Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan )

Transporter systems

Extravehicular transporter to and from the ship was accomplished by a number of transporter systems, which allowed personnel or equipment to be transported over large ranges. The transporter platform featured six pads, which were numbered clockwise, beginning with the right front. A redesigned field generator matrix was mounted into the rear wall of the chamber aboard the refit configuration Constitution-class starships. ( citation needed • edit)

Aboard the refitted Constitution-class vessels, the transporter operator stood within an enclosed control pod, which had a floor-to-ceiling transparent aluminum panel through which he or she could view the transport platform. This panel served to shield the operator from the effects of any cumulative radiations emitted by the new transporter machinery, a side effect of the more powerful system. ( citation needed • edit)

A door in the standard transporter room wall led to a staging area where landing parties prepared for transporter. ( citation needed • edit)

Crew support systems

Medical systems

On the original Constitution-class starships, a sickbay facility was located on Deck 6, which featured an examination room, a nursery, the chief medical officer's office and a medical lab. At least one other medical lab was located elsewhere on the vessel, and was used for biopsy, among other things. Sickbay was considered the safest place to be on the ship during combat. ( TOS : " The Naked Time ", " Elaan of Troyius ") Many of the tools used in the Sickbay aboard the USS Enterprise, following her launch, were designed by her first medical officer, Doctor Sarah April, as life aboard required frequent improvisation. ( TAS : " The Counter-Clock Incident ")

Intensive Care Unit on a refit configuration vessel

Refit configuration examination room

With the class refit of the 2270s, the medical facilities of the Constitution-class starship were considerably updated. New micro-diagnostic tables were capable of fully analyzing the humanoid body at the sub-cellular level, offering the physician a total understanding of the patient's status.

Another new addition was a medical stasis unit, in which patients whose conditions were considered immediately life-threatening could be placed into suspended animation until the proper cure or surgical procedure could be established. ( citation needed • edit) ( Star Trek: The Motion Picture )


Personnel

Background information

The model dressed as the USS Lantree

The Lantree was a reuse of the USS Reliant studio model from Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan , but with the "roll bar" removed, which had a down-to-earth rationale. In a privately shot behind-the-scenes video, shot by Effects Supervisor Gary Hutzel, it was disclosed that when the model was prepared to make its appearance as the Lantree after its stint as the USS Saratoga (NCC-1887) in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home , the effects crew were unable to make the internal lighting of the roll bar work on time, so the decision was made to have the Lantree appear without it. [1] (X)

The quarantine transmitter computer voice of the Lantree was voiced by an unknown actor.

The bridge of the Lantree was a redress of the Enterprise-D's battle bridge turned 180 degrees. The main viewer, featuring star charts, can be seen behind Captain Telaka.

An unseen element from the Operation Retrieve charts includes a list of starships, their registries, and their commanders. According to this list, the Lantree was commanded by K. Glover, named after that film's camera operator Kristin R. Glover. [2]


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USS Sagamore II - History

Hunting New England Shipwrecks

Shipwrecks of New England

Below is a partial list of New England shipwrecks. This list is a composite of all the wreck listed on our state-by-state wreck lists. Clicking on a Vessel Name link will take you to a wreck data page, where you'll find the wreck's history, specifications and pictures. Use the Back arrow to return here.

The image at right shows the locations of the six New England states. To view maps of the individual states, go to our New England Maps & Charts page. For details on shipwreck and diving regulations that apply in the various states, see the state-by-state wreck lists.

Check out our New England
Shipwreck Coordinates List
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Shipwrecks of New England
Vessel Name Type Lost Location Depth
A.F. Davison Schooner 1926 Off Grand Manan Island, NB
Achilles * Freighter 1887 Off Block Island, RI
Addie M. Anderson * Schooner 1899 Narragansett Bay, RI 50'
HMS Albany * Sloop-of-War 1782 Penobscot Bay, ME
Albert Gallatin * Rev. Cutter 1892 Off Manchester, MA 50'
Alert III Tug 1953 Buzzard's Bay, MA 50'
Alexander Macomb * Freighter 1942 200 miles E of Boston, MA 270'
Alice E. Clark * Schooner 1909 Off Islesboro, ME 60'
Alice L. Pendleton * Schooner 1940s Noank, CT 10'
Alice M. Colburn * Schooner 1923 Off Manchester, MA 30'
Alice M. Lawrence * Schooner 1914 Nantucket Shoals, MA
Alma A. E. Holmes * Schooner 1914 Off Marblehead, MA 160'
Alva * Yacht 1892 Off Chatham, MA 50'
Amaretto * Fishing 1985 Off Owl's Head, ME 120'
Andrea Doria * Passenger 1956 Off Nantucket, MA 235'
Angel Gabriel * Gallion 1635 Off Pemaquid Point - Bristol, ME
Angela * Barge 1971 Off Westport, MA 30'
Annie C. Maguire * Barque 1886 Cape Elizabeth, ME 30'
A. R. Noyes* Coal Barge 1884 Lake Champlain, VT 80'
Aransas * Passenger 1905 Off Chatham, MA 65'
Ardandhu * Freighter 1900 Vineyard Sound, MA 60'
Argo Merchant * Tanker 1976 Off Nantucket, MA 60'
Ashmore * Barque 1877 Off Grand Manan Island, NB
Atlantic * Passenger 1846 Off Fishers Island, NY 20'
Baleen * Tug 1975 Boston Harbor, MA 170'
Barataria Tug 1971 Off Southold, NY 135'
Barge and Crane Barge 1963 Nantucket Sound, MA
USS Bass * Submarine 1945 Off Block Island, RI 160'
Bay State * Passenger 1916 Cape Elizabeth, ME 10'
Beaver Tail * Passenger 1938 Narragansett Bay, RI 30'
Belleville * Freighter 1957 Off Newport, RI 30'
Black Point * Collier 1945 Off Block Island, RI 100'
Bohemian * Passenger 1864 Cape Elizabeth, ME 30'
Bouquet * Barge 1906 Off Quonochontaug Beach, RI 120'
Brenton Reef Lightship (LV-39) * Lightship 1975 Off Marblehead, MA 180'
C. Vanderbilt * Passenger 1857 Fishers Island, CT
California Fishing 1955 Off Rockport, MA 50'
Cambridge * Passenger 1886 Off Port Clyde, ME 50'
Camilla May Page * Schooner 1928 Off Portsmouth, NH 15'
Can Do * Pilot Boat 1978 Off Marblehead, MA
Canonbury * Freighter 1888 Off Nantucket, MA
Cape Fear * Freighter 1920 Narragansett Bay, RI 180'
Carolyn * Steamer 1912 Metinic Island, ME
Castine * Passenger 1935 Off Vinalhaven, ME
Celtic * Tug 1984 Off Norwalk, CT 80'
Champlain II * Ferry 1875 Lake Champlain, VT 30'
Charles Schooner 1807 Off Cape Elizabeth, ME
Charles H. Trickey * Schooner 1920 Cape Porpoise, ME
Charles S. Haight * Freighter 1946 Off Rockport, MA 30'
Chelsea * Tanker 1957 Off Rockport, MA 60'
Cherokee * Passenger Ship 1942 Off Cape Cod, MA 700'
Chester A. Poling (Stern) * Tanker 1977 Off Gloucester, MA 95'
Chester A. Poling (Bow) * Tanker 1977 Off Gloucester, MA 190'
City of Columbus * Passenger 1884 Martha's Vineyard, MA 50'
City of Lawrence Passenger 1907 Off Groton, CT
City of Portland * Passenger 1884 Off Owl's Head, ME 20'
City of Rockland * Passenger 1923 Off Beverly, MA 10'
City of Richmond * Steamer 1881 Penobscot Bay, ME
City of Salisbury * Freighter 1938 Boston Harbor, MA 90'
City of Taunton * Passenger 1930s Somerset, MA 10'
Col. William B. Cowin * Ferry 1941 Buzzards Bay, MA 75'
Columbia * Schooner 1898 Scituate, MA
Commodore * Passenger 1866 Off Hortons Point, NY 30'
Condor Tug 1983 Off Darien, CT 70'
Connaught * Steamer 1860 East of Boston 500'+
Cora F. Cressy * Schooner 1938 Medomac, ME
Cornfield Lightship (LV-51) * Lightship 1919 Off Old Saybrook, CT 190'
Corvan Freighter 1940s Buzzards Bay, MA 100'
Coyote* Freighter 1932 Off Boston Harbor, MA 170'
Cross Rip Lightship * Lightship 1918 Off Nantucket, MA
HMS Culloden * Frigate 1781 Off Montauk, NY 20'
Cumberland * Tug 1917 Vinalhaven Harbor, ME
D. M. Munro Freighter 1943 Machias Bay, ME
D. T. Sheridan * Tug 1948 Monhegan Island, ME Shore
Davis Palmer * Schooner 1909 Boston Harbor, MA 40'
Defence Brig 1779 Stockton Harbor, ME 20'
Defense Gunboat 1779 Off Waterford, CT
Delaware * Sch. Barge 1898 Off Scituate, MA 60'
Dixie Sword * Freighter 1942 Off Chatham, MA 50'
Don * Excursion 1941 Casco Bay, ME
Dynafuel * Tanker 1963 Buzzards Bay, MA 60'
Eagle Boat (PE-31) * Patrol Boat 1922 Off Cuttyhunk Island, MA
Eagle Boat (PE-42) * Patrol Boat 1931 Boston Harbor, MA 240'
Edna M. McKnight * Schooner 1927 Boothbay Harbor, ME
Edward E. Briry * Schooner 1917 Off Nantucket, MA 50'
Edward J. Lawrence * Schooner 1925 Portland Harbor, ME 10'
Edward Rich Schooner Off Rockport, MA 65'
Eldia * Freighter 1984 Cape Cod, MA
Ellenora Van Dusen * Schooner 1900 Gloucester Harbor, MA 40'
Empire Knight * Freighter 1944 Off Boon Island, ME 80'
Empire State * Passenger 1887 Bristol Harbor, RI 20'
Emperor * Steamer 1872 Penobscot Bay, ME
Essex * Freighter 1941 Block Island, RI 30'
Etrusco * Freighter 1956 Scituate, MA
Explorer Fishing 1994 Off Newport, RI 90'
Exminster * Freighter 1942 Cape Cod Bay, MA 50'
Fairfax * Freighter 1898 Off Cuttyhunk, MA
F. C. Pendleton * Schooner 1930s Off Islesboro, ME 40'
Forest Queen * Ship 1853 Off Scituate, MA 30'
Fort Mercer * Tanker 1952 Southeast of Nantucket, MA 300'
Frank A. Palmer * Schooner 1902 Massachusetts Bay, MA 360'
Francis L. Taussig * Passenger 1929 Off Martha's Vineyard, MA 60'
French Van Gilder Schooner 1885 Nantucket Sound, MA
USS G-1 * Submarine 1921 Narragansett Bay, RI 100'
USS G-2 * Submarine 1915 Off Waterford, CT 60'
USS G-3 * Submarine 1921 Off Fishers Island, NY
G.M. Winslow * Tug 1904 Off Cuttyhunk Island, MA 50'
USS Galena * Sloop 1891 Off Martha's Vineyard, MA
Gardner G. Deering * Schooner 1930s Off Brooksville, ME 30'
General Butler * Canal Boat 1876 Lake Champlain, VT 40'
General Greene * CG Cutter 1960 Off Sandwich, MA
George W. Humphreys Fishing 1904 Off Newport, RI 20'
Georgia * Steamer 1875 Nor. Triangles, Penobscot Bay, ME
Glen Island * Passenger 1904 Glen Cove, NY 20'
Gratitude * Packet Ship 1866 East of Boston, MA
Grecian * Freighter 1932 Off Block Island, RI 100'
Gypsum King * Tug 1906 Off Grand Manan Island, NB 35'
USS Grouse * Mine Sw. 1963 Off Rockport, MA 20'
Gwendolyn Steers Tug 1962 Off Huntington Harbor, NY 55'
Hada County * Steamer 1941 Off Grand Manan Island, NB
Harkness * Tug 1992 Off Matinicus Island, ME 100'
Hartwelson * Freighter 1943 Off Boothbay, ME 30'
Helen B. Crosby * Schooner 1906 Penobscot Bay, ME
Helen Eliza Fishing 1869 Casco Bay, ME
Henry Endicott Sch. Barge 1939 Off Plymouth, MA 80'
Herbert * Lighter 1924 Off Nahant, MA 100'
Hercules Tug 1907 Off Misquamicut, RI 15'
Herman Winter * Freighter 1944 Martha's Vineyard, MA 20'
Heroine * Fishing 1920 Off Watch Hill, RI 80'
Hesper * Schooner 1930s Wiscasset, ME
Hestia * Steamer 1909 Off Grand Manan Island, NB
Hilda Garston Fishing 1961 Off Westport, MA 45'
Horatio Hall * Passenger 1909 Off Chatham, MA 35'
Horse Ferry * Ferry Lake Champlain, VT 50'
Humacao * Steamer 1885 Off Grand Manan Island, NB
Idene Fishing Off Block Island, RI 85'
Imperial Ship 1869 Off Grand Manan Island, NB
Indian * Steamer 1902 Off Cuttyhunk Island, MA
Irvington * Tug 1914 Off Owl's Head, ME 50'
Isabel * Passenger 1915 Off Stamford, CT 20'
James E. Longstreet * Freighter 1944 Cape Cod Bay, MA 20'
Jennie French Potter * Schooner 1909 Nantucket Sound, MA 20'
Jennie R. Dubois * Schooner 1903 Off Block Island, RI 90'
John A. Downs Tug 1985 Great Gull Island, NY 230'
John H. Starin * Steamer 1909 Bridgeport Harbor, CT
John S. Dwight Rum Runner 1923 Vineyard Sound, MA 85'
Joseph S. Zeman * Schooner 1922 Off Metinic Island, ME 50'
Josephine Marie * Fishing 1992 Off Cape Cod, MA 105'
Karen E Yacht 1981 Off Greenport, NY
Kate Harding * Barque 1892 Cape Cod, MA
Kenwood * Schooner 1926 Off Scituate, MA 20'
Kershaw * Freighter 1928 Nantucket Sound, MA 85'
King Philip * Excursion 1935 Boston Harbor, MA 230'
Kiowa * Freighter 1903 Boston Harbor, MA 45'
USS L-8 * Submarine 1926 Off Newport, RI 120'
Lackawanna * Tug 1915 Nantucket Sound, MA 50'
Lady of the Lake * Passenger 1895 L. Winnipesaukee, NH 30'
Lake Crystal * Barge 1946 Off Watch Hill, RI 130'
Larchmont * Passenger 1907 Off Watch Hill, RI 130'
Lexington * Passenger 1840 Off Bridgeport, CT 150'
USS Leyden * Tug 1903 Block Island, RI 15'
Lightburne * Tanker 1939 Block Island, RI 30'
Lightship LV-58 * Lightship 1905 South of Nantucket, MA 150'
Llewellyn Howland * Freighter 1924 Off Newport, RI 30'
Lord Ashburton * Barque 1857 Grand Manan Island, NB
Louise B. Crary * Schooner 1902 Massachusetts Bay, MA 360'
Lunet * Schooner 1898 Naushon Island, MA 60'
Luther Little * Schooner 1930s Wiscasset, ME
Lydia Scholfield * Schooner 1891 Off Newport, RI 30'
Magnifique Man-of-War 1782 Boston Harbor, MA
Maine * Passenger 1920 Western L. I. Sound, NY 10'
Maritana * Barque or Brig 1861 Outer Boston Harbor, MA
Mars * Tug 1942 Off Plymouth, MA 125'
Mary Arnold * Tug 1940 Off Charlestown, RI 60'
Mary E. O'Hara * Fishing 1941 Boston Harbor, MA 50'
Mary E. Olys * Schooner 1920 Cape Porpoise, ME
Mavournee Barque 1866 Grand Manan Island, NB 90'
Mayflower * Passenger 1979 Nantasket Beach, MA
Mertie B. Crowley * Schooner 1910 Martha's Vineyard, MA
Meteor * Collier 1926 Block Island, RI 20'
Metis * Passenger 1872 Off Watch Hill, RI 130'
Minerva Brig 1810 Off Newport, RI 20'
Miss Sonya * Fishing 2008 Off Gloucester, MA 160'
Mohave * Tug 1928 Boston Harbor, MA 25'
Monhegan * Passenger 1938 Narragansett Bay, RI 5'
Montana Sch. Barge 1907 Off Block Island, RI 90'
Montclair Schooner 1927 Off Cape Cod, MA
Mount Hope Tug 1968 Narragansett Bay, RI 20''
Moritz * Freighter 1930 Off Marblehead, MA 200'
Myronus * Schooner 1907 Off Bridgeport, CT 60'
Nancy Brig 1780 Portland Head, ME 30'
Nancy * Schooner 1927 Nantasket Beach, Hull, MA
Nantucket Lightship * Lightship 1934 Off Nantucket, MA 180'
Narragansett * Passenger 1880 Off Saybrook, CT
Neponset * Tug 1927 Buzzards Bay, MA 78'
USS New Hampshire * Frigate 1922 Off Manchester, MA 40'
Neptune II * Fishing 1989 Off Sakonnet Point, RI 85'
New York Central 14 * Lighter 1970s Off Boston, MA 120'
Newcastle City * Steamer 1887 Off Nantucket, MA 100'
USS Nezinscot * Tug 1909 Off Rockport, MA 300'
USS Nina * Tug 1891 Off Martha's Vineyard, MA
Nina T * Fishing 1997 Off Gloucester, MA 100'
Norness * Tanker 1942 Off Block Island, RI 284'
North American * Passenger 1967 East of Nantucket, MA 250'
Northern Voyager * Fishing 1997 Off Gloucester, MA 175'
Nottingham * Galley 1710 Boon Island, ME
Novadoc * Freighter 1947 Off Portland, ME 400'
USS O-9 * Submarine 1941 Off Isles of Shoals, NH 430'
O. J. Walker * Canal Boat 1895 Lake Champlain, VT 65'
Oakey L. Alexander * Collier 1947 Cape Elizabeth, ME 20'
USS Ohio * Frigate 1884 Greenport, NY 20'
Olinda * Freighter 1895 Off Fishers Island, NY 30'
Onondaga * Freighter 1918 Off Watch Hill, RI 40'
USS PE-56 * Patrol Boat 1945 Off Cape Elizabeth, ME
P. T. Teti Tug 1972 Off Sakonnet Point, RI 100'
Palmetto * Steamer 1858 Off Block Island, RI 40'
Pan Pennsylvania * Tanker 1944 70 mi S of Nantucket, MA 300'
Paul Palmer * Schooner 1913 Off Provincetown, MA 85'
Pemberton Sch. Barge 1907 Nantucket Sound, MA
Pendleton * Tanker 1952 Off Chatham, MA 30'
Pentagoet * Steamer 1898 Off Cape Cod, MA 170'
Perkiomen * Steamer 1885 Off Monomoy Island, MA 55'
Peter Stuyvesant * Passenger 1978 Boston Harbor, MA
Philadelphia * Gunboat 1776 Lake Champlain, VT
Phoenix * Ferry 1819 Lake Champlain, VT 110'
Pinthis * Tanker 1930 Off Scituate, MA 100'
Polias * Freighter 1920 Off Port Clyde, ME 40'
Poling Brothers #2 * Tanker 1940 Off Greenwich, CT 60'
Port Hunter * Freighter 1918 Nantucket Sound, MA 85'
Port Nicholson * Freighter 1942 Off Cape Cod, MA 700'
Portland * Passenger 1898 Off Cape Cod, MA 460'
Pottstown Sch. Barge 1944 Off Sandwich, MA 60'
Progress Dredge 1940 Off Charlestown, RI 60'
Puszta Freighter 1934 Block Island, RI 20'
Queen City * Steamer 1907 Sakonnet, RI
Regal Sword * Freighter 1979 Off Chatham, MA 275'
Reliance * Lighter 1933 Off Boston, MA 120'
Republic * Passenger 1909 Off Nantucket, MA 250'
Rhode Island * Passenger 1880 Narragansett Bay, RI 30'
Robert G. Cann * Steamer 1946 Off Grand Manan Island, NB 400'
Romance * Passenger 1936 Boston Harbor, MA 80'
Roosevelt II * Ferry 1959 Lake Champlain, VT
Royal Tar * Passenger 1836 Off Vinalhaven, ME
Ruth E. Merrill * Schooner 1924 Vineyard Sound, MA 20'
Rye Cliff Ferry 1918 Off Sea Cliff, NY 10'
USS S-4 * Submarine 1927 Off Provincetown, MA
USS S-21 * Submarine 1945 Off Cape Elizabeth, ME 120'
USS S-51 * Submarine 1925 Off Block Island, RI
Sagamore * Schooner 1907 Nantucket Sound, MA 80'
Sagamore * Freighter 1934 Off Prouts Neck, ME 40'
Sagunto Frigate 1813 Isles of Shoals, NH
HMCS Saint Francis * Destroyer 1945 Off Westport, MA 60'
Saint John * Brig 1849 Off Cohasset, MA 20'
Samuel J. Goucher * Schooner 1911 Off Isles of Shoals, NH
Sankaty Head * Fishing 1967 Off Plymouth, MA 120'
Sarah Ellen * Schooner 1860 Lake Champlain, VT 300'
Seaconnet * Collier 1923 Vineyard Sound, MA 100'
Silvia * Freighter 1908 Off Cuttyhunk, MA
Somerset * Frigate 1778 Cape Cod, MA
Southland * Steamer 1930 Off Scituate, MA 160'
Spartan * Freighter 1905 Block Island, RI 15'
Spitfire * Gunboat 1776 Lake Champlain, VT
USS Squalus * Submarine 1939 Off Portsmouth, NH
Stone Boat * Canal Boat Lake Champlain, VT 25'
Susan P. Thurlow * Schooner 1897 Casco Bay, ME
USS Tallapoosa * Gunboat 1884 Vineyard Sound, MA
Thames Tug 1973 Off Southold, NY 130'
Thames * Steamer 1930 Off Norwalk, CT 10'
USS Thresher (SSN-593) * Submarine 1963 East of Cape Cod, MA 8,400'
Trajan * Barque 1867 Newport Harbor, RI 30'
USS Triana * Tug 1891 Cuttyhunk Island, MA 20'
Trojan * Freighter 1906 Vineyard Sound, MA 110'
Troydon * Fishing 1995 Off Block Island, RI 135'
Turkish Empire * Ship 1879 Off Grand Manan Island, NB
Twilight Passenger 1921 Moosehead Lake, ME 30'
U-215 * German Sub 1942 200 miles E of Boston, MA 270'
U-234 * German Sub 1947 40 miles NE of Cape Cod, MA 600'
U-550 * German Sub 1944 70 mi S of Nantucket, MA 300'
U-853 * German Sub 1945 Off Block Island, RI 130'
Ulysses * Steamer 1878 Rockland Harbor, ME
U.S. La Vallee * Tug 1931 Lake Champlain, VT
USS Valor * Mine Sw. 1944 Buzzards Bay, MA
Van * Steamer 1935 Off Boston, MA 300'
Velma Schooner 1900 Off Grand Manan Island, NB
Vineyard Lightship * Lightship 1944 Buzzards Bay, MA 65'
Volund * Freighter 1908 Off Fishers Island, NY 95'
Wandby * Freighter 1921 Off Kennebunkport, ME 20'
Wanderer * Whale Ship 1924 Off Cuttyhunk, MA 20'
Warwick * Steamer 1896 Off Grand Manan Island, NB
Washington * Passenger 1831 Off Stratford, CT 60'
Washington B. Thomas * Schooner 1903 Off Prouts Neck, ME 20'
Whydah * Pirate Ship 1717 Off Wellfleet, MA 40'
William H.Machen * Freighter 1942 Off Isles of Shoals, NH 300'
William H. McAllister * Tug 1963 Lake Champlain, VT
Winifred Sheridan Barge 1941 Boston Harbor, MA 50'
Wyalusing * Tug 1906 Off Hull, MA 50'
Wyoming * Schooner 1924 Off Chatham, MA
USS Yankee * Cruiser 1908 Off New Bedford, MA 55'
USS YF-415 * Lighter 1944 Boston Harbor, MA 240'
USS YMS-14 * Minesweeper 1945 Boston Harbor, MA 60'
YSD * Salvage Barge 1957 Off Martha's Vineyard, MA 30'

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Sagamore Spirit debuts its Port Covington distillery

Sagamore Spirit, Under Armour CEO Kevin Plank's whiskey company, showed off its new distillery along the Patapsco River on Thursday, as the facility prepares to open to the public on Friday.

The Sagamore Spirit Distillery, located at 301 E. Cromwell St., is the first new building in the Port Covington development envisioned by Plank and his private real estate firm, Sagamore Development Co. The project is to include a new headquarters campus for Under Armour as well as offices, residences, stores and recreational amenities such as trails and fields at an estimated total cost of $5.5 billion.

The distillery will be open daily for tours and tastings of the Sagamore Rye whiskey it began selling last May.

The tour will take guests on an hourlong walk through the whiskey-making process, starting in a visitors center featuring a history wall that tells the story of distilling in Maryland.

The state was home to 44 distilleries before Prohibition, including at least 13 in Baltimore, according to Sagamore. They were converted to ethanol plants during World War II, and a few resumed making whiskey when the war ended.

"We can now remind the world that Maryland is back on the map as the premier distiller of rye whiskey," said Sagamore Spirit President Brian Treacy at Thursday's ribbon-cutting event for the facility.

Plank and Bill McDermond, a friend from Plank's time at Fork Union Military Academy, founded Sagamore Spirit in 2013 with a mission of restoring Maryland's whiskey distilling tradition. The company broke ground on the facility in 2015 and its rye whiskey hit shelves last year.

Tours of the new facility will take guests through the 22,000-square-foot distillery building, where the process starts with Sagamore's 6,000-gallon mash cooker and nine 6,500-gallon fermenting tanks. The star of the room is a 40-foot mirrored-finish copper column still, made by Kentucky-based Vendome Copper and the only one of its kind in the world, according to Sagamore.

Guests also can check out a 250-gallon copper pot still, which will be used for research and development, seasonal releases and new spirits.

The processing building is where Sagamore's whiskey is put into barrels and mixed with water from Sagamore Farms, Plank's horse breeding and training facility in Baltimore County. The water is stored in a 120-foot-high water tower on the property. Guests also will be able to see how the whiskey is bottled.

The tasting room will offer visitors the opportunity to try the finished product. Bottles will be available for sale, too. A restaurant and event space are expected to open this fall.


CV / CVA / CVS - 20 USS Bennington

On August 16, 1777, one of the most historic battles Of the Revolutionary War took place near Bennington, Vermont.

Nearly 170 years later, the keel of a huge aircraft Carrier was laid at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, New York.
The Carrier was named in commemoration of the battle and Christened the USS BENNINGTON on February 26, 1944.

The Bennington ( CV-20) was Laid down 15 December 1942 and Launched 26 February 1944 by New York NavyYard sponsored by Mrs. Melvin J. Maus, wife of Congressman Maus of Minnesotaand commissioned 6 August 1944, Captain J. B. Sykes in command.

On 15 December 1944, Bennington got underway from New York and transited the Panama Canal on the 21st. The carrier arrived at Pearl Harbor 8 January 1945 and then proceeded to Ulithi Atoll, Carohne Islands, `There she joined TG 58.1, 8 February. Operating out of Ulithi she took part in the strikes against the Japanese home islands (1

17 and 25 February), Volcano Islands (18 February - 4 March), Okinawa (1 March), and the raids in support of the Okinawa campaign (18 March-11 June). On 7 April Bennington's planes participated in the attacks on the Japanese task force moving through the East China Sea toward Okinawa which resulted in the sinking of the Japanese battleshipYamato, light cruiser YAHAGI, and four destroyers. On 5 June the carrier was damaged by a typhoon off Okinawa and retired to Leyte for repairs arriving 12 June. Her repairs completed, Bennington left Leyte 1 July and during 10 July-16 August took part in the final raids on the Japanese home islands.

She continued operations in the western Pacific, supporting the occupation of Japan until 21 October. on 2 September her planes participated in the mass flight over Missouri (BB 63) and Tokyo during the surrender ceremonies. Bennington arrived at San Francisco 7 November 1945 and 13-17 March 1946 transited the Panama Canal enroute to Norfolk. Following pre-inactivation repairs, she went out of commission in reserve at Norfolk 8 November 1946.

The carrier began modernization at New York Naval Shipyard 30 October1950 and was recommissioned 13 November 1952. Her shake down lasted until May 1953 when she returned to Norfolk for final fleet preprations. Between 14 May 1953 and 27 May 1954 she operated along the eastern seaboard, made a midshipman cruise to Halifax, Nova Scotia, and a cruise in the Mediterranean.

The following information is provided directly from articles, which I've researched.
Joe Pires 8-2-1999
27 APRIL 1953 - 10:03 HOURS - BOILER EXPLOSION - USS BENNINGTON CVA-20
The NAVY released the names of the 11 killed and seven injured in an explosion aboard the aircraft carrier BENNINGTON off Cuba. Of those injured, only one was admitted to the Naval Hospital at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. All of the injured were listed as having 1st or 2nd degree burns.
The explosion was caused by a failure of the boiler tubing while the 27,000-ton carrier was on a shakedown cruise off the southeastern part of Cuba.
Reports stated that there was slight damage to the ship in the accident. The explosion occurred at 10:03 AM Norfolk time. Apparently the BENNINGTON was helping another ship at the time of the explosion. A message intercepted by the Headquarters of the Navy's Atlantic Air Arm in Norfolk stated that the destroyer USS CONE indicated that the carrier BENNINGTON had taken an injured man from the destroyer and performed emergency surgery on him, then transferred him to a hospital by helicopter.

On 26 May 1954, while cruising off Narragansett Bay, the fluid in one of her catapults exploded setting off a series of secondary explosions which killed 103 crewmen and injured 201 others. Bennington proceeded under her own power to Quonset Point, R. I., to land her injured.
Please Read:
Memoirs of the 26 May 1954 Explosion
by Richard S. Pope
former HM1

Moving to New York Naval Shipyard for repairs she was completely rebuilt during 12 June 1954 - 19 March 1955. On 22 April 1955 the Secretary of the Navy came aboard and presented medals and letters of commendation to 27 of her crew in recognition of their heroism on 26 May 1954. Bennington, returned to operations with the Atlantic Fleet until departing Mayport Fla., 8 September 1955 for the Pacific. She steamed by way of Cape Horn and arrived at San Diego one month later. The carrier has since served with the Pacific Fleet making Far Eastern cruises.

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USS Sagamore II - History

Grace Line (W. R. Grace & Co.), New York 1882-1969

W. R. Grace and Co. was founded in Peru in the mid-19th century by the Irish-born Grace brothers, William Russel and Michael to engage in the guano trade.
They prospered, especially in the exporting of guano from the Chincha Islands to the United States, where this fertilizer as in considerable demand using sailing ships.
In 1865, leaving Michael in charge of their interests in Callao, William established the firm of W.R. Grace & Co., in New York. By 1880 he had become a leading citizen and was twice elected Mayor of New York, despite opposition from Tammany. In the 1880's the company entered the steamship business with a line of freighters running from New York to the South American west coast via the Strait of Magellan flying the British flag. What later became the Grace Line originated in 1882 as a line of sailing vessels between Peru and New York.
Grace's original British-flag ships had black hulls, white painted masts and booms, and a green stack with a black top. After the first world war sucessors were painted grey, with masts and booms of the usual mast color. Hulls became black again in 1928 and masts and booms reverted to white in 1932. (about 1959-60 Grace passenger ships again turned to grey hulls).
The early British-flag freighters all had names beginning with C, such as CACIQUE, CAPAC, CHINCHA Names which were later repeated in ships under the American flag.
Later Grace started a service from the Pacific coast of the United States to the west coast of South America, and in 1913 took delivery of the 4,826 gross ton, 400-foot Santa Cruz from William Cramp & Sons of Philadelphia for this run. She was their first American flag ship and was especially designed to carry a large deckload of lumber, as well as 48 passengers. three boilers provided steam for a 2400 horsepower triple expansion engine, which gave her a speed of 11-12 knots. She introduced the green funnel with white band and black top which continued to be the Grace stack colors.
Grace established regular steamship service in 1893 with a subsidiary called the New York & Pacific Steamship Co., operating under the British flag because ships built outside the United States were banned from US registry until 1905. US-flag service began in 1912 with the Atlantic and Pacific Steamship Company. The activities of both companies and the parent firm were consolidated into the Grace Steamship Company beginning in 1916. The firm originally specialized in traffic to the west coast of South America then expanded into the Caribbean.
COLUSA, of 5873 gross tons and 424 feet, was also built in 1913, by Hamilton of Port Glasgow, Scotland, for the same service as the SANTA CRUZ. She was Grace's last ship for British-flag operations. Three boilers and a quadruple expansion engine of 3500 horsepower gave her a service speed of 12 knots. She too, was built to carry large loads of lumber on deck. She had four masts at first, but was later given a fifth with a 100 ton boom, and handled fully assembled steam locomotives for the South American ports. Her 36 passenger capacity was later increased to 50.
In 1914 COLUSA was transferred to the U.S. flag and was renamed Santa Cecelia (a misspelling of CECILIA). Some of the British-flag ships were lost by enemy action, and only two were left at the end of the first world war. Grace also operated a cargo service from Seattle to Chile with way calls along the coast.
To restore Transpacific service, Grace bought in 1915 three ships under construction in Holland Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, laid down for the Royal Netherlands West India Mail, these had been intended to run down to the west coast of South America via the Panama Canal, but had been sold on the stocks to the Norwegian owner Chr. Hannevig, who proposed to use them between New York and the South American east coast, a run discontinued by Lamport and Holt and Booth Line because of the war. Hannevig, however accepted Grace's offer to buy the ships before they were completed. Colombia kept her name until she was lost. This unlucky ship first ran aground on Cano Island off Costa Rica in 1923, remaining there two months. Practically her whole bottom had to be removed in drydock at Balboa. In the fall of 1931 she went to her grave on the south end of Margarita Island off lower California. Venezuela struck a mine on the way out from Holland and was repaired in England.
In 1916 Grace decided to institute a passenger service from New York to ports on the west coast of South America as far as Valparaiso, Chile, and contracted for five ships SANTA ANA, SANTA LUISA, SANTA TERESA (By Cramp) and SANTA ELISA and SANTA LEONORA (by New York Shipbuilding). These 110 passenger ships were 376 feet long with a gross tonnage of 5800. They had four boilers each and quadruple sxpansion engine of 3300 hp. in the Cramp ships and 3400 in the others. Their service speed of 13 knots could be exceeded by a knot.
The United States Shipping Board took these five ships over for transport duty. By the time the troops had been carried back from France, Grace had decided that four would be sufficient for the intended service, and declined return of the SANTA LEONORA, which went to the Navy and became the submarine tender CANOPUS, ultimately lost in the Philipines early in 1942. In 1926 the secondary service from New York as far as Antofagasta, Chile was begun with the SANTA CRUZ, which was joined in the following year by SANTA CECI(E)?LIA ( ex COLUSA)
Also in 1916, the company acquired a controlling interest in the venerable Pacific Mail Steamship Company, premier west coast and transpacific operator, which had already sold its big ships and retained only the lesser vessels of the Central American service.
In 1921 the Shipping Board allocated five 535 ft. President class ships for Transpacific operation by Pacific Mail Line. these were PRESIDENT CLEVELAND, (ex GOLDEN STATE), PRESIDENT LINCOLN (ex HOOSIER STATE), PRESIDENT PIERCE (ex HAWKEYE STATE), PRESIDENT TAFT (ex BUCKEYE STATE) and PRESIDENT WILSON (ex EMPIRE STATE).
COLOMBIA, ECUADOR and VENEZUELA were thus displaced and in the following year were transferred from the far east run to the intercostal run. At the same time Grace placed on the same run the freighters SANTA BARBARA, SANTA CLARA, SANTA MALTA, SANTA OLIVIA, SANTA PAULA and SANTA ROSA. These six , making connection with the President ships at San Francisco, provided fast freight service from Atlantic ports to the far east.
In 1923 the Shipping Board invited bids for the sale of the President ships operated by Pacific Mail. The Dollar Line outbid Grace and was awarded the vessels. Finding itself without ships suitable for the transpacific trade, Pacific Mail sold its registered name and goodwill to Dollar. Grace now without a transpacific connecting service, had no further use for the six intercostal freighters and sold them off to the American Hawaiian Line.
At this time Grace formed a new entity, the Panama Mail Company, to operate the small ships formerly owned and used by the Pacific Mail in the Central American trade, these ships not having been involved in the sale to Dollar. COLOMBIA, ECUADOR and VENEZUELA also remained under Grace Ownership.
In 1928 to meet competition from the Pacific Steam Navigation Company and the Chilean Line, Grace took delivery of SANTA BARBARA and SANTA MARIA, which were a great improvement over previous ships. As it was then permissable to build ships in foreign countries for U.S. flag operation and retain eligibility for mail contracts, these sisters were constructed by the Furness Shipbuilding Company in Haverton-on-Tees, England. Each had two 8-cylinder, 2 cycle Sulzer diesel engines of 4000 hp. apiece. They were the first large motor passenger ships to sail under the U.S. flag.
The service speed of these 150 passenger vessels was 16 knots, their overall length 480 ft. and their gross tonnage 8000. In later years , after the advent of the 18 knot SANTA CLARA, a project for increasing the speed of these ships was considered. It was proposed to install a third 4000 hp. diesel engine which would transmit power to the two propeller shafts through a generator and two electric motors. In view of their somewhat old-style passenger accommodations, however, these plans did not materialize.
Since only four ships were required for the Valparaiso service, SANTA ANA and SANTA LUISA were transferred to the Panama Mail's New York-San Francisco run and were renamed respectively GUATEMALA and EL SALVADOR.
In 1929 SANTA INEZ and SANTA RITA joined the fleet. Apart from cruiser stern, short funnel and diesel propulsion, these ships built by Burmeister & Wain of Copenhagen, were much like the SANTA ANA class. Measuring 5000 tons and 386 ft. overall, they had accommodations for 125 passengers in two classes. Each had two six cylinder, 4 cycle, 3600 HP main engines, giving a service speed of 13 knots. SANTA RITA made 15.1 on her trials. This pain joined SANTA CECILIA and SANTA CRUZ in Grace's secondary service which was now extended to Valparaiso.
When SANTA CLARA was added in 1930, it was decided to speed up the schedule, thus rendering superfluous SANTA ELISA and SANTA TERESA which entered the secondary service. replacing SANTA CECILIA and SANTA CRUZ. From the New York Shipbuilding Corporation, SANTA CLARA was a larger SANTA BARBARA, 20 ft. longer, two knots faster, and about the same tonnage. Her propulsion was quite different, however, two turboelectric units with a combined output of 12,000 hp. The service that had required four ships was reduced to three. SANTA BARBARA and SANTA MARIA had to do their utmost to maintain the schedule that called for about 17 knots.
Upon COLOMBIA'S loss in 1931, the Grace ships SANTA ELISA and SANTA TERESA were transferred to Panama Mail, in order to have four vessels of the same capacity and speed on the New York San Francisco run. ECUADOR and VENEZUELA, respectively renamed SANTA OLIVIA and SANTA ISABEL took the place of these two on the secondary South American service EL SALVADOR was renamed SANTA ANA and GUATEMALA , SANTA CECILIA. The previous SANTA CECILIA had been sold to Norway.
Late in 1932 he depression forced the suspension of the secondary service and SANTA ISABEL, SNTA INEZ, SANTA OLIVIA & SANTA RITA were tied up. This service was, however, resumed the following year.
To comply with its mail contracts, Grace had agreed to build four new ships. These the SANTA ROSA class were ordered from Federal Shipbuilding Co. Kearney, New Jersey and delivered in 1932-1933. They were designed by William Francis Gibbs, who had also drawn plans of Matson's MALOLO and later to draw those of the AMERICA and the record-breaker UNITED STATES.
These ships had some general resemblance to MALOLO, with her great beam and low stern. their original gross tonnage of 11,200 was later reduced to 9,100 by the cutting of tonnage openings in # 6 shelter deck. Subsequently their tonnage was again changed, all of which reduced tonnage dues and Panama Canal tolls. Their overall length was 508 ft. and beam 72 ft.
Their power plants were at the time second to none in efficiency. Each of the water tube steam generators with a pressure of 430 lbs. produced 6000 hp. and each ship could make 18-1/2 knots with only three boilers active. The main engines were double reduction turbines. The screws turned inward, and for this reason were very awkward to maneuver. The passenger capacity of the SANTA ROSA class was 209 in first class and about 50 in steerage. Their public rooms were all on the promenade deck, with the dining salon extending two and a half decks in height to a roll back dome. The after dining room bulkhead was adorned with a large oil painting of a Grace clippper. Each cabin, whether single or double was equipped with private bath.
With the new quartet the Grace Line established the first passenger service between New York and Seattle. Calls were made at Havana, Puerto Colombia, Cartagena, Canal Zone, Punta Arenas, La Libertad, San Jose, Mazatlan, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Victoria. The first ship the SANTA ROSA sailed November 26, 1932 the last, SANTA ELENA, April 4, 1933. New York- Seattle running time was 20 days, including one day in Los Angeles and two in San Francisco. Average speed 18-1/2 knots. Before the New York sailing, each ship called at Philadelphia for cargo only.
In 1934 the port time in New York was greatly reduced and the call at Philadelphia eliminated. The time saved enabled the ships to make a shuttle run between Seattle and San Francisco. The 20 knot service and the ship's superior accommodations to anything the Pacific Coast shipping had to offer made this an exceedingly popular run.
It was not long before other companies complained that, since Grace ships were subsidized for foreign trade they should not compete in the coastwise business. By the end of 1934 Seattle ceased to be a port of call and the voyage ended in San Francisco. Since three ships could now maintain the service, the SANTA LUCIA was reassigned to the South American run. Late in 1936 Grace acquired the Red D Line and it's Caribbean Service, and early in 1937 SANTA ROSA, SANTA PAULA and SANTA ELENA entered that service: New York to Venezuela, Curacao, Colombia, Cristobal and Haiti.
In addition to the services already mentioned, Grace operated several cargo runs, for which it built eight 12 knot freighters, between 1913 and 1919. These all of about 10,000 deadweight tons. They were the SANTA CATALINA, SANTA CECILIA and the six already mentioned as running intercoastal in the early 1920's. There was also a 13,000 ton tanker NORA, named for the daughter of J.P. Grace. all these freighters had been sold by 1925 and the tanker was disposed of in 1932. SANTA CATALINA by 1919 had become the USS BLACK HAWK, a destroyer tender.
Early in 1936 Grace sold SANTA CECILIA (ex SANTA ANA) and SANTA TERESA to the Merchants & Miners Transportation Company, SANTA ELISA, SANTA ANA (ex SANTA LUISA) went to the Alaska Steamship Company. SANTA INEZ and SANTA RITA were bought by the Navy in 1940 and the SANTA BARBARA and SANTA MARIA also in 1940. SANTA OLIVIA and SANTA ISABEL were also sold.
The Navy took over the SANTA LUCIA in 1942 as the USS LEEDSTOWN, she was sunk in the North African invasion. The SANTA ELENA was sunk the following year off the Philippville on the Algerian coast. SANTA CLARA as the SUSAN B. ANTHONY went down in the Normandy invasion.
Of the ships built before 1939 only the SANTA ROSA and SANTA PAULA survived. They continued to be the flagships of the fleet until 1958 when they were replaced by sister ships of the same name.
The Government had six uncompleted C2 type hulls and these were offered to Grace Line. Grace Line accepted the offer and had them converted to 52 passenger vessels. These "combos" became very popular and were a huge success and Grace Line had three more built. The first six were fitted out to carry bananas from Ecuador to New York. The last three were to be on the Caribbean run and were not equipped to carry bananas. Graces postwar fleet consisted of the nine combos, the Santa Rosa and Santa Paula, (which had been returned to Grace Line and refitted again to the liners that they once were) and nine C2 freighters. The Santa Rosa and Santa Paula served the Caribbean calling at Curacao, La Guaira, Aruba, Kingston, Port au Prince and Port Everglades, sailing from New York every two weeks. The three Caribbean "combos" called at Santo Domingo, Puerto Cabello, La Guaira, Maracaibo, Barranquilla, Cartagena, Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York. The other six "combos" along with the C2 Freighters sailed from New York to the West Coast of South America as far as Valparaiso.
In 1956 Grace decided to replace the Santa Rosa and Santa Paula with two new vessels. The new vessels a Gibbs & Cox design were to be called Santa Rosa and Santa Paula. They were 15,000 gross tons and 584 feet overall with an 84 foot beam. The first vessel the Santa Rosa was delivered in 1958. and the second Santa Paula soon followed. At this time cargo costs were escalating and cargo offerings to Venezuelan ports were declining and Grace decided that with the Santa Rosa and Santa Paula and two freighters being converted to all container vessels would meet the requirements in the Caribbean. The Santa Eliana and Santa Leonor two C2 type vessels were converted to all container vessels. These were the first American container vessels in foreign trade. The converted Santa Eliana sailed for Venezuela January 1960 with 176 containers containing powdered milk and other general cargoes. The longshoremen refused to unload the containers even though some sort of a previous agreement had been made by the agency. After 18 days an agreement was reached and the Santa Eliana was unloaded with the provision that no more vessels of this type would be used. The sailing of the Santa Leonor was canceled and both vessels were laid up.
In 1959 The Saint Lawrence Seaway opened and Grace obtained approval for an operational subsidy for the Great Lakes route. The route would serve ports on the Great Lakes to Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Barbados and ports on the north coast of Venezuela and Colombia. The decision to operate to the Great Lakes proved to be a financial disaster for Grace and the run was given up after one season.
In 1960 Grace Line decided to replace the aging "Combos" with four new 20 knot passenger vessels to carry approximately 100 passengers. These vessels were to serve the west coast of South America. They were 20,000 displacement tons 546 feet long with a 79 foot beam. The names were chosen to honor the four countries, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador & Peru They were designed with all new advanced cargo carrying devices. Each was fitted out to carry 360,000 cubic feet of bananas (90,000 stems approx. 4000 tons) in three holds, on the southbound voyage these areas were used for carrying autos or palletized cargoes which were loaded by a special pallet handling system. There were 5 cargo elevators in 3 holds. The other two holds were container holds. There were four gantry cranes on deck which when married in pairs could handle 40 foot containers. Container capacity was 175 twenty foot containers. The four "M" ships, as they were called carried 125 first class passengers. Public rooms were spacious and tastefully decorated and there was a large outside tiled swimming pool.
About this time Grace decided to replace the aging freighters and six new freighters were built, The first of these was the Santa Lucia and these ships became known as the "L" ships. They were modern vessels with refrigerated compartments for Chilean fruit and Ecuadorian bananas. They were equipped for 12 passengers in luxurious staterooms and had seven hatches with 10 ton booms and two 30 ton booms and a 80 ton jumbo boom.
Things were normal until 1969 when the parent company W.R. Grace decided to go out of the steamship business and concentrate on chemical and other company ventures. Grace Line was sold to Prudential Line, a small line owned by Skouras of 20th Century Fox. At first the line was called Prudential Grace Lines and later the Grace was dropped and it became just Prudential Line. The ships were operated as before with most of the same personnel aboard but in 1970 Prudential decided to suspend the Caribbean service and the Santa Rosa and Santa Paula were laid up, never to sail under the American Flag again. The "M" ships were sailed as freighters until 1972 when three were transferred to the west coast. They were once again returned to passenger ship status. They sailed from San Francisco, north to Tacoma and Vancouver thence through the Panama Canal calling at ports on the east coast of South America then through the Strait of Magellan to call at ports on the west coast of South America and thence return to Los Angeles and San Francisco. This was a 59 day voyage. The Santa Magdalena remained on the east coast until 1974 when she too was transferred to the west coast to sail with the other three.
In 1978 the Prudential Line was taken over by Delta Lines, In 1983 there was a sharp drop in cargo bookings to South America and operations began to wind down. The six "L" class freighters were laid up and finally sold. The four "M" ships continued to run until 1984 when all operation of the former Grace Line Santas ceased.
At its peak, the Grace Line was a major force in American merchant shipping. Shortly after World War II it owned 23 ships totaling 188,000 gross tons, plus 14 more on bareboat charters.

Many thanks to Henk Jungerius and Ted Finch for their assistance in collecting this data. The following list was extracted from various sources. This is not an all inclusive list but should only be used as a guide. If you would like to know more about a vessel, visit the Ship Descriptions (onsite) or Immigrant Ship web site.

Funnel:
1882-1913 Green with black top
1913-1969 Green funnel with broad white band and black top.

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Last updated: March 26, 2010 and maintained by and M. Kohli


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