The Library of Congress, housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., is the research library of the U.S. Congress, and is considered the national library of the United States. It’s also the largest library in the world, with a collection of more than 170 million items.
Library of Congress Founded
The story of the Library of Congress began in 1800, when President John Adams approved a congressional act that moved the national capital from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C.
As part of that bill, a sum of $5,000 was earmarked for books intended for use by the U.S. Congress. Under Adams’ immediate successor, Thomas Jefferson, Congress passed another law under which the U.S. president appoints someone to the official post of “Librarian of Congress.”
Jefferson named the first two librarians, who each did double duty as clerk for the House of Representatives. (The two positions were separated in 1815.)
Jefferson’s contributions to the Library of Congress didn’t stop there: In August 1814, during the War of 1812, British forces burned the Capitol, destroying the still-small congressional library. The following year, Congress purchased Jefferson’s extensive personal library (including some 6,487 books) for some $23,950, which became the foundation of the new Library of Congress collection.
Unfortunately, another fire in 1850 (this time accidental) destroyed some 35,000 volumes, including almost two-thirds of Jefferson’s original contribution.
Expansion Into a National Library
Until the Civil War, the Library of Congress had a relatively limited purpose: to serve Congress.
But after the war, the influential Librarian of Congress Ainsworth Rand Spofford (who served in the post from 1864 to 1897) convinced Congress that it was a vital national institution; that, in effect, it was the nation’s library, and should be used by the public as well as by Congress.
Spofford also played a leading role in promoting the copyright law of 1870, which centralized all U.S. copyright registration and deposit activities (including the U.S. Copyright Office itself) in the Library of Congress.
As its collections grew steadily under Spofford’s watch, Congress approved the construction of a separate building for the Library of Congress. The Italian Renaissance-style structure opened in 1897, nearly a century after the library’s founding.
20th Century Growth
In the early 20th century, the Library of Congress took another great leap forward thanks to the support of President Theodore Roosevelt, who in 1903 issued an executive order transferring the records of the Continental Congress and the personal papers of six founding fathers—George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison and James Monroe—to the library from the State Department.
President Warren G. Harding issued another key executive order in 1921, transferring the original copies of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution to the Library of Congress for safekeeping and display to the public. These founding documents would move to their permanent home in the National Archives in 1952.
A new Art-Deco style annex building opened in 1939 to hold the library’s ever-growing collections. The latter half of the 20th century saw the Library of Congress build its collections at an unprecedented rate, largely driven by the impact of automation on its cataloging procedures and its expansion into overseas acquisitions.
From 1954-75, during the tenure of Librarian of Congress L. Quincy Mumford, the library’s collection grew from 10 million to 17 million volumes.
Library of Congress Today
A third major building, named for James Madison, opened in 1980, doubling the library’s size.
Its two older buildings were renamed that same year—the original 1897 structure for Thomas Jefferson and the 1939 annex building for John Adams—and both underwent extensive restorations and modernizations in the 1980s and ‘90s.
Today’s Library of Congress boasts 21 reading rooms, including the Main Reading Room, located in the Jefferson Building.
What's in the Library of Congress Catalog?
With the dawn of the Internet era, the Library of Congress website and its National Digital Library Program (both launched in 1994) created an increasingly valuable online research destination, including a high-quality electronic catalog of historical documents and other research materials.
By 2012, the library’s American Memory website had grown to include some 37.6 million primary source materials (including manuscripts, photographs, films and audio recordings) available for teachers to use in the classroom.
In 2007, the Packard Humanities Institute transferred its campus in Culpepper, Virginia, to the Library of Congress for the opening of its new National Audio-Visual Center, a state-of-the-art facility used to preserve the library’s audio-visual collections.
By 2016, when Carla Hayden was sworn in as the first woman and first African American to become librarian of Congress, the library had more than 3,000 people on staff and more than 38 million books and 70 million manuscripts in its catalog.
According to its website, the Library of Congress receives approximately 15,000 items, and adds about 12,000 items to its catalog each day. Most of these come in through the copyright registration process; others through gifts, purchases and exchange with libraries in the United States as well as abroad. In 2015, the Library of Congress announced plans to archive every single Tweet.
History of the Library of Congress, Library of Congress website.
Fascinating Facts, Library of Congress website.
Library of Congress: American Memory.
Library of Congress Classification
The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress in the United States. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U.S. and several other countries. 
LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books (and authors), which also defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "42037605" and "https://lccn.loc.gov/42037605". [a] The Classification is also distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically. [b] Finally, the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7.J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7.J684 Wj 1982". [c]
The classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, and the Putnam Classification System (developed while Putnam was head librarian at the Minneapolis Public Library).  It was designed specifically for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K (Law) and parts of B (Philosophy and Religion) were well developed.
LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis many of the classification decisions were driven by the practical needs of that library rather than epistemological considerations.  Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is essentially enumerative in nature. That is, it provides a guide to the books actually in one library's collections, not a classification of the world.
In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system. 
The National Library of Medicine classification system (NLM) uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC, eschewing LCC's R for Medicine. Others use LCC's QP–QR schedules and include Medicine R. [ clarification needed ]  
The seed that grew into the American Memory historical collections was planted in a pilot program that ran from 1990 through 1994. The pilot experimented with digitizing some of the Library of Congress’s unparalleled collections of historical documents, moving images, sound recordings, and print and photographic media -- the "nation’s memory." It identified audiences for digital collections, established technical procedures, wrestled with intellectual-property issues, explored options for distribution such as CD-ROM, and began institutionalizing a digital effort at the Library. Forty-four schools and libraries across the country received CD-ROMs with these materials as part of the pilot. As the American Memory pilot drew to a close, the Library surveyed the 44 selected schools and libraries that had participated. The response was enthusiastic, especially from teachers and students in middle and high schools who wanted more digitized resources. But distributing these materials in CD-ROM format was both inefficient and prohibitively expensive.
Fortunately, by 1994, the Internet and its World Wide Web were beginning to transform the presentation and communication of human knowledge. The Library took advantage of the opportunity and, on Oct. 13, 1994, announced that it had received $13 million in private sector donations to establish the National Digital Library Program. That day, building on the concepts the pilot had demonstrated, the Library of Congress launched the American Memory historical collections as the flagship of the National Digital Library Program -- a pioneering systematic effort to digitize some of the foremost historical treasures in the Library and other major research archives and make them readily available on the Web to Congress, scholars, educators, students, the general public, and the global Internet community.
From the outset, the National Digital Library was truly a collaborative national endeavor. Bipartisan support from Congress for $15 million over five years and a unique public-private partnership involving entrepreneurial and philanthropic leadership led to more than $45 million in private sponsorship from 1994 through 2000.
Beginning in 1996, the Library of Congress sponsored a three-year competition with a $2 million gift from the Ameritech Corporation to enable public, research, and academic libraries, museums, historical societies, and archival institutions (with the exception of federal institutions) to digitize American history collections and make them available on the Library’s American Memory site. The competition produced 23 digital collections that complement American Memory, which now features more than 100 thematic collections.
The National Digital Library exceeded its goal of making 5 million items available online by 2000. American Memory will continue to expand online historical content as an integral component of the Library of Congress’s commitment to harnessing new technology as it fulfills its mission "to sustain and preserve a universal collection of knowledge and creativity for future generations."
Library of Congress Classification:Class E -- History of America
11-143. America 11-29. General 29. Elements in the population 31-49.2. North America 51-73. Pre-Columbian America. The Indians 75-99. Indians of North America 81-83. Indian wars 99. Indian tribes and cultures 101-135. Discovery of America and early explorations 103-110. Pre-Columbian period 111-120. Columbus 121-135. Post-Columbian period. El Dorado 141-143. Descriptive accounts of America. Earliest to 1810 151-912. United States 151-169.12. General 171-183.9. History 171-180. General 173. Sources and documents 175-175.7. Historiography 176-176.8. Biography 179.5. Historical geography 181. Military history 182. Naval history 183-183.3. Political history 183.7-183.9. Diplomatic history. Foreign and general relations. 183.8. Relations with individual countries 184-185.98. Elements in the population 184.5-185.98. Afro-Americans 185.2-185.89. Status and development since emancipation 185.96-185.98. Biography. Genealogy 186-199. Colonial history (1607–1775) 186-189. General 191-199. By period 191. 1607–1689 195-199. 1689–1775 196. King William's War, 1689–1697 197. Queen Anne's War, 1702–1713 198. King George's War, 1744–1748 199. French and Indian War, 1755–1763 201-298. The Revolution, 1775–1783 300-453. Revolution to the Civil War, 1775/1783–1861 300-302.6. General 302. Collected works of American statesmen 302.1. Political history 302.5-302.6. Biography (Late eighteenth century) 303-440.5. By period 303-309. 1775–1789. The Confederation, 1783–1789 310-337. 1789–1809. Constitutional period 310.7. Diplomatic history. Foreign and general relations 311-320. Washington's administrations, 1789–1797 321-330. John Adams' administration, 1797–1801 323. Troubles with France, 1796–1800 331-337. Jefferson's administrations, 1801–1809 333. Purchase of Louisiana, 1803 335. War with Tripoli, 1801–1805 336-336.5. Neutral trade and its restrictions, 1800–1810 337.5. Nineteenth century (General) 337.8-400. Early nineteenth century, 1801/1809–1845 337.8-340. General 337.8. Collected works of American statesmen 339-340. Biography 341-370. Madison's administrations, 1809–1817 351.5-364.9. War of 1812 365. War with Algeria, 1815 371-375. Monroe's administrations, 1817–1825 373. Missouri Compromise, 1820 374. Diplomatic history. Foreign relations 376-380. John Quincy Adams' administration, 1825–1829 381-385. Jackson's administrations, 1829–1837 384.3. Nullification 386-390. Van Buren's administration, 1837–1841 391-392. William Henry Harrison's administration, March 4–April 4, 1841 396-400. Tyler's administration, April 4, 1841–1845 398. Northeastern boundary disputes, 1783–1845 401-415.2. Mexican–American War, 1846–1848 408. Mexican cessions of 1848 415.6-440.5. Middle nineteenth century, 1845/1848–1861 415.6-415.9. General 415.6. Collected works of American statesmen 415.8-415.9. Biography 416-420. Polk's administration, 1845–1849 421-423. Taylor's administration, 1849–July 9, 1850 423. Slavery question, 1849–1853 426-430. Fillmore's administration, July 9, 1850–1853 431-435. Pierce's administration, 1853–1857 433. Slavery question, 1853–1857 436-440.5. Buchanan's administration, 1857–1861 438. Slavery question, 1857–1861 440.5. State of the country, November 1860–March 4, 1861 441-453. Slavery in the United States. Antislavery movements 456-655. Civil War period, 1861–1865 456-459. Lincoln's administrations, 1861–April 15, 1865 461-655. The Civil War, 1861–1865 482-489. Confederate States of America 491-586. Armies. Troops 591-600. Naval history 660-738. Late nineteenth century, 1865–1900 660-664. General 660. Collected works of American statesmen 661.7. Diplomatic history. Foreign and general relations 663-664. Biography 666-670. Johnson's administration, April 15, 1865–1869 668. Reconstruction, 1865–1877 669. Purchase of Alaska, 1867 671-680. Grant's administrations, 1869–1877 681-685. Hayes' administration, 1877–1881 686-687.9. Garfield's administration, March 4–September 19, 1881 691-695. Arthur's administration, September 19, 1881–1885 696-700. Cleveland's first administration, 1885–1889 701-705. Benjamin Harrison's administration, 1889–1893 706-710. Cleveland's second administration, 1893–1897 711-738. McKinley's first administration, 1897–1901 713. Annexation in 1898 of Hawaii, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico 714-735. War of 1898 (Spanish–American War) 740-837.7. Twentieth century 740-749. General 740.5. Sources and documents 742.5. Collected works of American statesmen 743-743.5. Political history 743.5. Un-American activities 744-744.5. Diplomatic history. Foreign and general relations 745. Military history 746. Naval history 747-748. Biography 751. McKinley's second administration, March 4–September 14, 1901 756-760. Theodore Roosevelt's administrations, September 14, 1901–1909 761-765. Taft's administration, 1909–1913 766-783. Wilson's administrations, 1913–1921 768. Purchase of Danish West Indies (Virgin Islands), 1917 780. Internal history during World War I 784-805. 1919–1933. Harding-Coolidge-Hoover era. "The twenties" 785-786. Harding's administration, 1921–August 2, 1923 791-796. Coolidge's administration, August 2, 1923–1929 801-805. Hoover's administration, 1929–1933 806-812. Franklin D. Roosevelt's administrations, 1933–April 12, 1945 813-816. Truman's administrations, April 12, 1945–1953 835-837.7. Eisenhower's administrations, 1953–1961 838-889. Later twentieth century, 1961– 838-840.8. General 838.3. Sources and documents 839.5-839.8. Political history 839.8. Un-American activities 840-840.2. Diplomatic history. Foreign and general relations 840.6-840.8. Biography (General) 841-843. Kennedy's administration, 1961–November 22, 1963 842.9. Assassination, funeral, memorial services, etc. 846-851. Johnson's administrations, November 22, 1963–1969 855-861. Nixon's administrations, 1969–August 9, 1974 860-861. Watergate Affair. Resignation 865-868. Ford's administration, August 9, 1974–1977 872-875. Carter's administration, 1977–1981 876-880. Reagan's administrations, 1981–1989 877.3. Assassination attempt 881-884. George H. W. Bush's administration, 1989–1993 885-889. Clinton administration, 1993–2001 895-912. Twenty-first century 902-904. George W. Bush's administration, 2001–2009 907-909. Barack Obama's administration, 2009–2017 910-912. Donald Trump's administration, 2017-
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1774-1789 | 1789-1812 | 1812-1824 | 1824-1873
T he colonies join forces in the Continental Congress, secure their independence, and agree to establish a new form of government. The Constitutional Convention draws up the blueprint for a new nation. This story of the birth of a new nation is told in the thirty-four volumes of the Journals of the Continental Congress, the essays of The Federalist Papers, and in the personal correspondence reproduced in the Letters of the Delegates to Congress. Accounts of the Constitutional Convention such as The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 and The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution relay the debates and decisions of the Founding Fathers as they construct a structure for the federal government.
1789-1812: Charting the Republic
C ongress establishes a government for the new nation. Party politics develop and sectional tensions recur. The view westward opens dramatically with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, as democracy expands at home. The new country tries to work out an accommodation with its Native American neighbors and to avoid entanglement in the conflicts of the Old World.
The story of Congress in this period comes through two major records: the official Journals kept by the House and the Senate and the Annals of Congress, the main account of the Congressional debates. The Journal of William Maclay, senator from Pennsylvania, provides unusual glimpses of the members of the first Congress, on and off the Senate floor. The American State Papers series offers hundreds of documents that Congress deemed worthy of publication. The Statutes at Large present the laws and treaties approved by Congress and signed by the president.
1812-1824: Conflict and Resolution
C onflict with Great Britain strains the fabric of the United States as the mercantile centers, particularly in New England, suffer from the embargo on trade with Europe. After the war, the Monroe Doctrine (1823) states the young country's determination to run its own affairs without interference from Europe. Tensions over the unresolved issues of slavery are eased by the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
The ebb and flow of debate on foreign and domestic issues comes vividly alive in the volumes of the House and Senate Journal and the Annals of Congress, which during this period provide a fuller, almost verbatim account of debates on the floor. The myriad letters, reports, and other documents collected in the American State Papers reveal the inner workings of the evolving Republic, while the laws and treaties published in the Statutes at Large present its public face.
1824-1873: Crucible of Nationhood
C ongress faces an increasingly complex web of issues as the "Era of Good Feeling" (1817-24) gives way to the growth of party politics. The progress of the Industrial Revolution creates both opportunities and tensions in the economy and society. The growing economy fuels the construction of canals and railroads, but the Bank War of the 1830s highlights continuing stresses in the financial system. Attempts to extend the franchise to all adults achieve gains for white males, but falter for women and African Americans. As immigration surges, a nativist reaction gains strength. Pressure for territorial expansion, regional differences over foreign trade, and the continuing debate over slavery weigh in the decisions on admission of new states. Despite the best efforts of many in Congress, the nation moves toward Civil War.
The role of Congress as a body and of its two houses changes considerably over this period. Legislative activism reaches a new peak during the Civil War years laws on homesteading, railroads, banking, and land-grant colleges lay the foundation for the dynamic era that follows the Civil War. Reconstruction brings achievements and tensions: the first African-American congressmen and the first impeachment of a president.
The records of Congress reveal the grand themes of American history and the intimate details of citizens' lives. One can follow the debates over issues of governance and read the petitions of war widows seeking pensions. The House and Senate Journals provide the official record of floor action. Congressional debate was recorded first in the Register of Debates and subsequently in the Congressional Globe, with ever increasing accuracy and detail. The American State Papers provide the documents and reports of the legislative and executive branches through 1838. The Statutes at Large provide the results of legislators' work.
Library of Congress - HISTORY
From Several Divisions of the Library of Congress
(See Archival Directory)
Search the Collection | Browse an Index of Subjects | Authors | Titles
Archival Directory The Evolution of the Conservation Movement, 1850-1920 documents the historical formation and cultural foundations of the movement to conserve and protect America's natural heritage, through books, pamphlets, government documents, manuscripts, prints, photographs, and motion picture footage drawn from the collections of the Library of Congress.
The collection consists of 62 books and pamphlets, 140 Federal statutes and Congressional resolutions, 34 additional legislative documents, excerpts from the Congressional Globe and the Congressional Record, 360 Presidential proclamations, 170 prints and photographs, 2 historic manuscripts, and 2 motion pictures. The mission of the Library of Congress is to make its resources available and useful to Congress and the American people and to sustain and preserve a universal collection of knowledge and creativity for future generations. The goal of the Library's National Digital Library Program is to offer broad public access to a wide range of historical and cultural documents as a contribution to education and lifelong learning.
- 2000-2006: Ellen McCulloch Lovell 
- 2006-2016: Robert Patrick 
- 2016- : Karen Lloyd 
Notable media projects associated with the Veterans History Project include:
- A March 2007 screening of a series of films, shorts, and television episodes during Women's History Month titled "Women at War" highlighting American servicewomen participation in the major wars of the 20th century. 
- March 2: Mad Parade (1931) and 100% American (1918)
- March 9: Ladies Courageous (1944)  and Women in Defense (1942)
- March 16: Flight Nurse (1953) and M*A*S*H episode season 7, episode 16: "Inga" (1979)
- March 23: An episode from the acclaimed TV series China Beach and a television report titled "Woman Doctor in Vietnam" (1966), which aired on the CBS news program The 20th Century
- March 30: Courage Under Fire (1996)
- November 6: Barbara Martin
- November 7: "In Love and War" - Roxanne Seeman, songwriter with Elise Solberg, pianist and Hannah Goldblatt, singer
- November 8: "Still Over There" - Franklin Tootle, Operation Song
- November 9: Conversation on conversing: Veterans discuss VHP participation
- November 10: "Old Glory" - Kimberley Mitchell, Operation Song
- November 12: Organizational benefits to collaborating with VHP, panel discussion
- November 13: "Precious Pearl" - Kimberley Mitchell, Operation Song
- November 14: Volunteering to make history, panel discussion
- ^"The American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress". www.LOC.gov. hdl:loc.afc/folklife.home . Retrieved January 21, 2020 .
- "About the Veterans History Project (American Folklife Center)". Loc.gov . Retrieved 2010-03-25 .
- "Veterans History Project >> Representative Joe Sestak". Sestak.house.gov. 2000-10-27 . Retrieved 2010-03-25 .
- "The D'Azzo Research Library Newsletter". Afit.edu. 2000-10-27 . Retrieved 2010-03-25 .
- Chris Coutu (2000-10-27). "Make A Difference, Support American Veterans & Troops, Now!". American Warrior.Us . Retrieved 2010-03-25 .
- "How did the Veterans History Project start?". Ask.com . Retrieved 2010-03-25 .
- Springer, Jason. "Training for the Veterans History Project". Blue Jersey . Retrieved 2010-03-25 .
- "Central Connecticut State University (CCSU): FAQ". Ccsu.edu. 2000-10-27 . Retrieved 2010-03-25 .
- "Representative Kenny Marchant: Featured Story: Learn About The Veterans History Project". House.gov . Retrieved 2010-03-25 .
- "INTEGRIS Third Age Life Senior Services: Veteran's History Project". Integris-health.com. 2000-10-27 . Retrieved 2010-03-25 .
- "History". Lakemoreohio.org . Retrieved 2010-03-25 .
- "Veterans History Project". Norcaltrav.com. 2000-10-27 . Retrieved 2010-03-25 .
- "Robert Patrick Named Director of Veterans History Project". Library of Congress . Retrieved 28 September 2019 .
- "New Director Appointed to Lead Veterans History Project". Library of Congress. 4 November 2016 . Retrieved 28 September 2019 .
- ^ ab
- "VHP Celebrates Women's History Month with Film Series "Women at War " " . Retrieved 22 December 2010 .
- "Movie Review: Ladies Courageous". The New York Times. 1944.
- The Library of Congress (October 1, 2007). "Veterans History Project Web Site Enhances Experience of "The War " ". News From the Library of Congress.
- The Library of Congress (November 6, 2008). "Veterans History Project Spotlights Stories of WWII 92nd Infantry Division: Soldiers from WWII African American Unit Recount History in Their Own Words". News From the Library of Congress.
- "Veterans History Project Marks Tenth Year with Events and Initiatives". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA . Retrieved 2021-01-03 .
- "Veterans History Project 10th Anniversary". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA . Retrieved 2021-01-03 .
- "VHP Celebrates 15th Anniversary With New Web Presentation". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA . Retrieved 2021-01-03 .
- "Veterans History Project Celebrates 20th Anniversary Year with Online Concerts, Panels, Nov. 6-14". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA . Retrieved 2020-11-24 .
- "Library of Congress Veterans History Project virtual concert". www.radio.com. 2020-11-03 . Retrieved 2020-11-24 .
This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document: "About the Veterans History Project, Library of Congress, American Folklife Center".
“Doctrina Christiana”: More than Four-hundred Years of Filipino-American History
October is Filipino-American History Month. In looking back at the long history of Filipinos in the United States—which stretches all the way to the 16 th century, a time before the birth of the current nation states of the Philippines and the U.S.—it seems fitting to draw attention to a rare book in the Library of Congress that speaks to this centuries-old, trans-Pacific connection.
The “Doctrina Christiana,”ꃚted to 1593, is one of the first books produced in the European tradition in the Philippines, and the only known extant copy in the world can be found in the Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection in the Rare Book and Special Collections Division of the Library of Congress. This unique title has been digitized and is available to all for viewing online.
Title page for “Doctrina Christiana, en lengua española y tagala …” (Christian Doctrine in Spanish and Tagalog). Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection, Rare Book/Special Collections Reading Room, Library of Congress.
In the “Doctrina,” we see one of the earliest examples of printed Tagalog in Romanized and Baybayin script (image 48). Baybayin was a writing system based on an Indic script, which was developed prior to contact with the Spanish, and speaks to the connection of societies in the Philippines to larger Southeast Asian trends—in this case, the adaptation of Indic writing for local languages. “Doctrina Christiana, en lengua española y tagala …”.
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