Tablet with Survey of Barley Yields

Tablet with Survey of Barley Yields

Tablets - statistics & facts

The success of the iPad encouraged other companies such as Samsung and Huawei to release their own tablet versions in quick succession. However, after shipments peaked in 2014, the global demand for tablets has witnessed a steady decrease. In 2023, tablet shipments worldwide are forecast to reach 122 million units, a decrease from the high of 230 million units seen in 2014.

Apple remains the leading tablet vendor in terms of shipments, with Samsung and Amazon placing second and third among the tablet vendors. Apple's market share of tablet shipments worldwide has been at over 25 percent in recent years, although the competition remains strong as manufacturers continue to develop innovative products in order to lure consumers away from Apple.

Google’s Android operating system (OS), which is used by several different vendors, is the leading OS in the tablet market. Apple’s iOS has held about a quarter of the market share over the years. The remaining segments of the OS market are occupied by Microsoft's Windows operating system along with a host of other vendors with smaller shares.

This text provides general information. Statista assumes no liability for the information given being complete or correct. Due to varying update cycles, statistics can display more up-to-date data than referenced in the text.

The cultivation and domestication of wheat and barley in Iran, brief review of a long history

Wheat and barley are among the most important staple foods, originally exploited, cultivated and domesticated in the Near East, in places between the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Western slopes of the Zagros Mountains, at the beginning of the Holocene epoch. Almost all wild progenitors of the domesticated species of wheat and barley naturally grow in Iran, a Near Eastern Country, and were frequently exploited by the residents of the Iranian plateau throughout history. The cultivation of grains was initiated by hunter-gatherers dwelled in Iran as a supplementary source of food in the 12th millennium BP however, the domestication of wheat and barley, in the 10th millennium BP, revolutionized life-style of the Iranian people, and led to a gradual but steady increase in the complexity of human societies in Iran. Every aspects of grain cultivation and its technical difficulties pushed forward human societies to develop more and more efficient methods of cultivation, irrigation, transportation, storage and reservation, food preparation, trade and commercialization, governmental taxation and scientific exploration and invention, which were reviewed briefly in the current manuscript on the basis of the available archaeological and archaeobotanical literature, covering a timespan from 12th millennium BP to 1st millennium AD.

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Greek and Roman Celebrations of Wine

The European tradition of drinking wine probably started in the territory of Classical Greece when people drank it during breakfast. A person who didn't drink wine in ancient Greece was considered a barbarian. However, many famous philosophers, including Aristotle and Plato, criticized their society for drinking too much.

As for the ancient Romans, they didn't produce wine until they conquered lands where its production and consumption was already established. It seems that they adopted the idea of drinking wine from the Greeks and Etruscans.

Hellenistic mosaics discovered close to the city of Paphos depicting Dionysus, god of wine. ( Public Domain )

James Grout's Encyclopedia Romana explains: “The earliest work on wine and agriculture was written in Punic. After the destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, the Senate decreed that this treatise be translated into Latin, and it subsequently became the source for all Roman writing on viticulture. Ironically, it was Cato who had insisted on the destruction of Carthage in the Punic wars and who, about 160 BC, wrote De Agri Cultura, the first survey of Roman viticulture, which, significantly, also is the earliest surviving prose work in Latin. In it, he discusses the production of wine on large slave-based villa estates, which suggests how important vine cultivation had become in an agrarian economy that traditionally was based on subsistence farming. Indeed, by 154 BC, says Pliny, wine production in Italy was unsurpassed. That same year, the cultivation of vines was prohibited beyond the Alps, and, for the first two centuries BC, wine was exported to the provinces, especially to Gaul, in exchange for the slaves whose labor was needed to cultivate the large estate vineyards. (In part, the wine trade with Gaul was so extensive because its inhabitants, writes Diodorus Siculus, were besotted by wine, which was drunk unmixed and without moderation). But, as more land was expropriated by the villa estates, the displaced rural population was forced to emigrate to Rome until, by the first century BC, the city had approximately one million inhabitants.”

Ancient evidence of alcoholic drinks has also been found in China and pre-Hispanic Mexico and parts of South America. But what dregs of ancient booze have managed to survive the passage of time?

Total world grain production 2008/09-2020/21

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Grain including rice totals comply with USDA.
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Data prior to crop year 2017/2018 were taken from previous reports.


Average global price of quinoa 2010-2020


Global quinoa production 2010-2019, by country


Global quinoa production 2010-2019


Quinoa import value worldwide 2020, by country

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Domperidone is not approved for marketing in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but is available in other countries. Domperidone may also be available from some compounding pharmacies in the US. The quality of such products cannot be assured, and the FDA has warned against their use.[1]

Data available from 4 small studies on the excretion of domperidone into breastmilk are somewhat inconsistent, but infants would probably receive less than 0.1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. No adverse effects have been found in a limited number of published cases of breastfed infants whose mothers were taking domperidone.

Domperidone is sometimes used as a galactogogue to increase milk supply.[2] Galactogogues should never replace evaluation and counseling on modifiable factors that affect milk production.[3,4] Most mothers who are provided instruction in good breastfeeding technique and breastfeed frequently are unlikely to obtain much additional benefit from domperidone. Several meta-analyses of domperidone use as a galactogogue in mothers of preterm infants concluded that domperidone can increase milk production acutely in the range of 90 to 94 mL daily.[5-7] Other reviewers concluded that improvement of breastfeeding practices seems more effective and safer than off-label use of domperidone.[8,9]

Domperidone has no officially established dosage for increasing milk supply. Most published studies have used domperidone in a dosage of 10 mg 3 times daily for 4 to 10 days. Two small studies found no statistically significant additional increase in milk output with a dosage of 20 mg 3 times daily compared to a dosage of 10 mg 3 times and that women who failed to respond to the low dosage did not respond to the higher dosage.[10,11] Dosages greater than 30 mg daily may increase the risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in patients receiving domperidone,[12] although some feel that the risk is less in nursing mothers because of their relatively younger age.[13] In one case, domperidone use uncovered congenital long QT syndrome in a woman who developed loss of consciousness, behavioral arrest, and jerking while taking domperidone.[14] Mothers with a history of cardiac arrhythmias should not receive domperidone and all mothers should be advised to stop taking domperidone and seek immediate medical attention if they experience signs or symptoms of an abnormal heart rate or rhythm while taking domperidone, including dizziness, palpitations, syncope or seizures.[12]

Maternal side effects of domperidone reported in galactogogue studies and cases reported to the FDA include dry mouth, headache, dizziness, nausea, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, palpitations malaise, and shortness of breath. Some of these were more frequent with dosages greater than with 30 mg daily.[10,11,15-17] A survey of women taking domperidone for lactation enhancement found gastrointestinal symptoms, breast engorgement, weight gain, headache, dizziness, irritability, fatigue were the most common side effects reported.[18] Drug withdrawal symptoms consisting of insomnia, anxiety, and tachycardia were reported in a woman taking 80 mg of domperidone daily for 8 months as a galactogogue who abruptly tapered the dose over 3 days.[19] Another mother took domperidone 10 mg three times daily for 10 months as a galactagogue and stopped abruptly. After discontinuation, she experienced severe insomnia, severe anxiety, severe cognitive problems and depression.[20] A third postpartum woman began domperidone 90 mg daily, increasing to 160 mg daily to increase her milk supply. Because her milk supply did not improve, she stopped nursing at 14 weeks and began to taper the domperidone dosage by 10 mg every 3 to 4 days. Seven days after discontinuing domperidone, she began experiencing insomnia, rigors, severe psychomotor agitation, and panic attacks. She restarted the drug at 90 mg daily and tapered the dose by 10 mg/day each week. At a dose of 20 mg daily, the same symptoms recurred. She required sertraline, clonazepam and reinstitution of domperidone at 40 mg daily, slowly tapering the dose over 8 weeks. Three months were required to fully resolve her symptoms.[21] In a fourth case, a mother took domperidone 20 mg four times daily for 9 months to stimulate breastmilk production. She stopped breastfeeding and domperidone at that time. Two weeks later, she presented with insomnia, anxiety, nausea, headaches and palpitations. The drug was restarted at a dosage of 20 mg three times daily and began to taper the daily dosage by 10 mg every week, but after one week she complained of insomnia. Tapering was reduced to 5 mg every week, but whenever she stopped the drug, symptoms returned. She was able to discontinue domperidone after tapering the daily dosage by 2.5 mg weekly over 10 months.[22]

Activity 5. Barley and the Story of Writing

In this activity students will be introduced to the world’s first writing system—cuneiform—as they work through the British Museum's Mesopotamia site interactive online activity The Story of Writing, available through the EDSITEment resource The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago.

Introduce the activity by asking students to think about our word “barley.” How many students know what barley is? How is it used? What does it look like in its natural state? You may wish to sketch barley on the board, or show a photograph of barley, such as this photograph.

Barley was a very important crop in ancient Mesopotamia. A pictograph, a pictorial representation of barley—presumably like the one you’ve drawn on the board -- is one of the signs we find on the oldest examples of writing from the region. The first Mesopotamian written representation of barley was a picture. Ask students to think about and discuss the following questions:

  • What’s the relationship between the way our word “barley” looks and barley itself?
  • What are the elements of our word for barley -- how do we know that the symbols which make up the word represent the grain?

Students should come to the idea that in the written word “barley” it is the phonetic representations of the sounds of the word as we say it that connect the written word to the concept. Barley in Mesopotamia was called “she.”

Next, navigate with the class, or have students navigate on their own, through The Story of Writing website. Each page contains information on the history and development of the cuneiform character for the word "barley" over time. Students should complete the quiz Treasure Hunt: Bowling for Barley.

When students have completed the answers to the treasure hunt have the class discuss the answers to each of the questions, which are available in the teacher’s rubric. Have students answer the following questions in class discussion. For larger classes you may wish to divide the class into small groups and have each group work on answering one of the following questions, which they should share with the rest of the class.

  • How did writing evolve in ancient Mesopotamia? Students should note here the progression from representational picture, to symbol, to phonetic representation.
  • Why do the students think that the ancient Mesopotamians decided to change the writing system from just pictures (pictographs) to the cuneiform shapes? Students might think some of the following questions in order to help them understand the process: Did the change allow the ancient Mesopotamians to include a greater or a lesser number of ideas and objects in their writing? Did the shift towards cuneiform allow scribes to write more quickly?
  • How did the uses of writing expand over time? Remind students that the earliest written records were made to document buying and selling things like barley or domestic animals. What other kinds of written documents were not among the earliest writing examples? Students should think about the shift from the recording of simple economic transactions to personal letters and stories. What kinds of documents would have been developed later?
  • How did the change from pictures (direct representation) to cuneiform (abstract representation) affect who could use the system? Students should ponder the idea that an abstract writing system would require learning the system of signs. They should think about our own writing system -- were they able to understand it before someone taught them how to read and write? Once the writing system had changed to cuneiform, who might have learned how to read and write?
  • Who do you think would want the have a record of the buying and selling of barley? You may wish to remind students that these records were similar to receipts. Why do people make and keep receipts? This may help them to think about why people wanted to keep track of the buying and selling of barley.

Tablet with Survey of Barley Yields - History

Cost is Biggest Barrier, Pointing to Need for Free Digital Classroom Resources

ORLANDO, FL – Jan. 23, 2012 – PBS LearningMedia announced today findings from a national survey of teachers grades pre-K-12 that sheds light on the rising role of technology in America’s classrooms, as well as barriers teachers face to accessing the “right” digital resources.  Ninety-one percent of teachers surveyed reported having access to computers in their classrooms, but only one-in-five (22 percent) said they have the right level of technology.  PBS released the survey results at the 2012 Florida Education Technology Conference (FETC), where educators from across the country have gathered to share best practices about the use of technology in the classroom.

Nearly two-thirds (63 percent) of teachers cited budget as the biggest barrier to accessing tech in the classroom.  In low-income communities, this is an even greater challenge as 70 percent of teachers reported it as the greatest obstacle.  Teachers in affluent communities also have greater parental and school board support for tech in the classroom compared to those teaching in low-income communities.  Thirty-eight percent vs. 14 percent cited high levels of parental support and 38 percent vs. 21 percent for school board support.

While the vast majority of teachers have access to computers, less than two-thirds (59 percent) have access to an interactive whiteboard, a newer technology that can be used more broadly for classroom lessons.  Teachers in affluent districts are also twice as likely to have access to tablets as teachers in middle and lower income districts.  Still, teachers’ opinion about the ability of tech to enhance learning is universal 93 percent believe that interactive whiteboards enrich classroom education and 81 percent feel the same way about tablets.  This attitude towards technology transcends grade level, the income levels of the student population and the types of communities where they teach.    

According to the survey, tech resources used most often in the classroom include:  websites (56 percent), online images (44 percent) and online games or activities (43 percent).  Increasing student motivation (77 percent), reinforcing and expanding on content being taught (76 percent) and responding to a variety of learning styles (76 percent) are the top three reasons teachers use technology in the classroom.  

PBS, a leading provider of free teacher resources and digital content for use in the classroom, has regularly surveyed educators on their use of digital media and technology since 2002.  

“Over the past decade, we’ve seen broadening adoption and deeper integration of digital media in classrooms for all age groups, with teachers enthusiastic about the power of new technologies to foster learning,” said Rob Lippincott, Senior Vice President, PBS Education.  “It’s clear most teachers are embracing technology and need more resources, and PBS is committed to offering innovative tools and resources to support learning in classrooms across America.”

PBS, together with WGBH and local member stations, recently launched PBS LearningMedia (, which features a robust library with tens of thousands of digital assets, including lesson plans, background essays, and discussion questions for pre-K-12 educators that align with Common Core State Standards.  This free media-on-demand service features content from NASA, National Archives and PBS programs such as NOVA, FRONTLINE, AMERICAN EXPERIENCE, and SID THE SCIENCE KID all in one place.

“By offering exceptional, high-quality content free to educators everywhere, we’re meeting not just current needs of under-resourced communities, but also future needs,” said Michele Korf, Senior Executive for Educational Media at WGBH. “PBS LearningMedia has been designed with teachers for teachers. And it will continue to grow and adapt to meet classroom challenges.”

Teachers using PBS LearningMedia can create custom class pages and lesson plans while implementing state standards correlations as well as accessing student management tools, analytics, online professional development, staff training, and a curriculum gap analyzer tool.

Survey Methodology
The survey was conducted by VeraQuest Research and sampled 500 teachers within the United States between December 14 and December 20, 2011. Respondents for this survey were randomly selected from an online panel to be representative of teachers in the U.S. The estimated sampling error for the 500 respondents is +/- 4.4 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. These statements conform to the principles of disclosure of the National Council on Public Polls.

PBS LearningMedia is © 2011 PBS & WGBH Educational Foundation. All rights reserved.

Traditional/Ethnobotanical uses

Barley is considered to be the first cereal grain cultivated by humans. Its medicinal and food use dates back to 7000 BC. Crop reports on barley date back to 2440 BC, and the Chinese were cultivating barley circa 2000 BC. Since biblical times, ancient Asian and Middle Eastern cultures reportedly included young wheat and barley grass plants in their diets. Historically, the plant species was used in the treatment of skin, liver, blood, and GI disorders. Ancient Greeks used the mucilage derived from the cereal to treat GI inflammations. Gladiators ate barley for strength and stamina. The Roman physician Pliny used barley as part of a ritualized cure for boils.


In 1940, it was explained how the vitamins, minerals, and protein in the cereal grasses are essential to animals and humans. A dehydrated preparation of cereal grass called "cerophyl" was approved as an "accepted food" by the Council of Foods of the American Medical Association in 1939. Later, synthetic nutrients were added to a number of foods, and multivitamins gained popularity. The juice of barley grass contains beta carotene, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, pantothenic acid, and folic acid. Minerals present include potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and magnesium. Other constituents are chlorophyll, amino acids, protein, fiber, and enzymes. Cobalamin or vitamin B12 deficiency may be avoided in vegetarian diets by supplementation with dehydrated barley grass juice.

Antioxidant activity

Barley leaf extract has the ability to scavenge free radicals. Reactive oxygen species have been shown to play an important part in mediating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can be instrumental in the pathogenesis of diseases such as rheumatoid synovitis, arthritis, and gout. Animal data shows an increased production of oxygen-free radicals with barley leaf extract added to the diet. Clinical studies show blood levels of oxygen-free radicals were reduced by supplementation with 15 g/day barley leaf extract in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Similar results were noted in nondiabetic, hyperlipidemic patients. More clinical studies are needed to show the extent of benefits in humans.

Cancer prevention

Barley grass extracts protect human tissue cells against carcinogens. The mechanism of action is unknown but may be associated with the plant's antioxidant activity or its chlorophyll content. It has been suggested that complexes may be formed between the carcinogen and the chlorophyll that may inactivate the carcinogen. In addition, antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase, found in high concentrations in green barley juice protect against radiation and free radicals. Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of barley grass for cancer-preventive properties.


Cholesterol-lowering effects have been attributed to the beta-sitosterol components, in part. Beta-sitosterol is thought to act by inhibiting the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and accelerating its catabolism to bile acid. Preliminary animal and clinical data show that total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were lowered. HCL cholesterol levels were increased. More clinical studies are needed to be conclusive.

Other uses

Many claims have been made regarding the health benefits of barley grass supplements. Suggested benefits include treatment of HIV infection, detoxification of pollutants, and boosting energy and immunity. However, objective evidence supporting many of these claims is lacking.

11 Impressive Health Benefits of Barley

1. Improves Digestion

Fiber helps fight diarrhea and constipation by creating bulk within the digestive tract, thus controlling the bowel movements. A study carried out in 2003 showed the effects of incorporating more barley to the meals of adult women and discovered that after a month, the barley consumption had a positive impact on bowel function and lipid metabolism.

Barley’s fiber is also essential for keeping a healthy balance of bacteria in the digestive tract. Another well-researched and the key benefit of barley nutrition is that it may help in preventing certain types of cancers within the digestive system, which includes colon cancer.

2. Helps with Weight Loss

The fiber contained in barley is essential for a fat-burning diet. As mentioned before, fiber helps to create bulky stools which then speeds up the elimination process of wastes and toxins in the body. In addition to that, foods containing fiber make you feel full and satisfied for extended periods you. This enables you to cut back on consumption now, and also prevents overeating. Therefore, the fiber found in barley will curb your craving for food, which will help you to burn off more calories and thus weight.

3. Protects Against Gallstones

Since it is rich in insoluble fiber, barley helps women avoid developing gallstones. The insoluble fiber helps you minimize bile acid release, thus increasing insulin sensitivity and reducing triglycerides levels. An article published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology showed that women who consumed a fiber-rich diet were at a 17% lower risk of developing gallstones in comparison with other women.

4. Skincare

Barley is packed with selenium, which helps preserve skin elasticity, thus protecting it from loosening and free radical damage. Furthermore, it also enhances our pancreas, heart, and immune system functioning. Selenium deficiency can result in cancers of the colon, liver, skin, prostate, breast, and stomach.

5. Prevents Asthma

Barley is a key allergen in baker’s asthma condition and also a barley endosperm protein. Baker’s asthma is an airborne disease, normally prevalent in bakeries and confectioneries. It acts as quite an effective preemptive method for such types of main wheat-flour allergens.

6. Prevents Heart Disease

Barley comprises of key nutrients, such as vitamin B1 thiamine, vitamin B3 niacin, copper, magnesium, and copper which are all useful for lowering cholesterol, high level of blood pressure, and other risk factors related to heart disease. These key minerals assist in controlling the metabolism and production of cholesterol, prevent harmful blood clotting, help in improving arterial health and are essential for nerve signaling operations that help regulate heart functions, such as heart rhythms.

Barley’s nutrients are particularly helpful in slowing the dangerous advancement of atherosclerosis, a health condition where plaque builds up within arteries and can result in a heart attack, heart complications, or even a stroke. The nutritional value of barley helps blood vessels remain blockage free, thus improving blood circulation and minimizing inflammation.

7. Good Source of Antioxidants

Barley is packed with antioxidant phytonutrients called lignans.Lignans are associated with lower occurrences of heart disease and cancer since they are helpful in reducing inflammation and combating the effects that aging can have on the body. The key kind of lignin present in the body is known as 7-hydroxymatairesinol. Research suggests that this element may protect against the development of heart disease and cancer since it helps the body metabolize bacteria and also maintain the perfect ratio of good-and-bad bacteria within the gut, thereby reducing the overall inflammation.

The oxidants present in barely assist in boosting serum levels of enterolactone, an element that is correlated with regulating levels of hormones and thus fighting hormone-related cancers, like breast and prostate cancer.

8. Helps Manage Diabetes

It effectively assists in controlling Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented by losing weight, either through physical activity or by incorporating plenty of whole grains in the diet. Barley is a food rich in fiber, plus it comprises of all the key minerals and vitamins, an especially beta-glucan soluble fiber that decelerates down glucose absorption. The 2006 December publication of Nutrition Research showed that insulin-resistant participants who added barley beta-glucan soluble fiber had considerably lower insulin and glucose levels as compared to other test subjects.

9. A Great Source of Minerals and Vitamins

It is packs numerous key nutrients, which includes magnesium, selenium, niacin, copper, thiamine, and other essential minerals and vitamins.For instance, copper is vital for maintaining cognitive function into old age, supporting the nervous system, the metabolism, and producing red blood cells. Similarly, selenium found in barley benefits your physical appearance by enhancing hair and skin health and also supports a healthy metabolism.

Manganese found in barley is essential for brain health and supporting the nervous system. A cup of cooked barley offers 20% of your daily recommended magnesium needs. Magnesium is essential for key enzyme relations in the body, which includes the use and production of glucose.

10. Boosts Immunity

The beta-glucan present in barley is rich in also comprises of vitamin C, a nutrient that is well known for boosting the immune system.

11. Beneficial During Pregnancy

As discussed above, barley is a powerhouse of essential nutrients, antioxidants, and fiber. Drinking barley water every day can help promote better digestion and ease morning sickness. Furthermore, it can help control blood sugar levels, thus preventing the risk of gestational diabetes.

Michael Jessimy

Michael Jessimy is a Reg. Pharmacist, Bodybuilder, Nutrition Consultant, Fitness Pro. He is a specialist fitness writer that can easily craft pieces which are both informative and easy to read. Michael is a certified medical write and a qualified pharmacist that makes medical writing easily understandable by the general population. Michael Jessimy range of expertise encompasses pharmaceutical and medical writing, White Paper production, as well as Fitness and Bodybuilding consultation.

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